Anti-Drug and Public Order Crime

Anti-Drug and Public Order Crime
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Anti-Drug and Public Order Crime
Infectious disease selected for this project is influenza. Influenza, commonly known as
flu, is a virus caused illness that affects the human respiratory system. Chiefly shivers, running
nose, coughing, headaches, aching joints, fatigue, sore throats, and high body temperatures
characterize it. Some patients may however experience gastrointestinal complications
characterized by nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting; the later symptoms are however prevalent
among adults than children. Notably, distinguishing influenza from other virus caused
respiratory diseases are complicated, and therefore specialized tests have to be made. Flu is
profoundly infectious and is spread by tiny droplets transmitted through coughing sneezing or
talking when such droplets land on people nearby they immediately become infected. Also,
Influenza is spread through touching of surfaces containing the virus and touching their mouth
eyes or the nose.
Several factors have motivated me towards selecting influenza; one is that the illness is
seasonal in the United States primarily during winter seasons causing every year; similarly, it
ranks among the most transmitted diseases in the United States. Thirdly is the diseases’ high
mortality rate of Influenza it is estimated that 30,000 to 50,000 patients die every year in the
United States due to Seasonal Influenza (Med, 2005)Pandemic Occurrence of Influenza
outbreaks strains the healthcare of the united states by calling for huge budgets to treat and
mitigate its effects. The United States department of Health and Human Services in a bid to
guarantee the health of all American citizens engages in rigorous research and investigations to
provide various pandemic preparedness measures. Among the many plans formulated and
executed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, including the 2005 Pandemic
Influenza Plan. The chief plans priorities included the development of domestic pandemic
vaccines and protective health measures, healthcare emergency response, stockpiling of the pre-
pandemic and antiviral drugs, development of community-based mitigation measures (Timothy
C. Germann, Kai Kadau, Ira M. Longini and Catherine A. Macken, 2006).
The government research put more emphasis on the prevalent H5N1 Influenza, which
was earlier proposed to exist in animals such as geese and ducks sorely but became infectious to
humans. Evidence collected proved that human-to-human transmission of H5N1Influuenza
occurred at a high rate and consequently precipitated high mortality rates. Notably contrary to
human influenza, which is transmitted by body contact or inhalation of infectious droplets, H5NI
was acquired through direct contact with infected poultry. U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services singled out the June 2009 Influenza pandemic, which claimed the lives of over
250 infected patients at a mortality rate of 60% (Med, 2005). Therefore, the laboratory services
concluded that the H1N1 Influenza was of great concern and mitigation measures should be
taken. Some of the common symptoms observed included respiratory infections, which
culminated in respiratory failure.
While the spread of H1N1Influenza have been mitigated the Center for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) has not ruled out the likelihood of future outbreaks and have sent out
precautions that should be adhered to in areas where the infectious disease is prone. Some of the
precautions given include avoiding direct contact with dead birds or surfaces that appear
contaminated by domestic or wild bird’s faces, and thorough cooking of poultry products (Med,
2005). Notably, further research on H5N1 continues to be carried out by Center for Disease
Control in conduction with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Some of the
positive achievements attained in the research of influenza include the development of a unique
diagnostic test with the capability of identifying Influenza subtype from an ailing patient within
20minute. Similarly, the research has led to the development of customized vaccines for specific
seasonal influenza virus subtypes including the Subtype A (H5N1), (H1N1) and Subtype A
Government works on mitigation of the Influenza pandemic include providing for the
development and operationalizing of the Pandemic Influenza plan in all the states. The plan
would ensure all states are well equipped with disaster management including disbursement and
accountability of funds meant for the health emergency. Increasing the human resources
associated with emergency response, such members include laboratory staff and healthcare
providers who conduct research and administer vaccines to the sick (U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, 2017). In addition, the government has prioritized interagency planning,
coordination and response to pandemics; such has been evident in the handling of the previous
outbreak of diseases such as Zika and Ebola.
The most significant plan developed by the government to mitigate any future Influenza
outbreaks is outlined in the 2017-2027 pandemic response elements, which are built on the
earlier developed 2005 plan. The plan will entail revamping of surveillance, laboratory activities,
and Epidemiology to facilitate early detection and monitoring of seasonal Influenza to ensure the
outbreaks do not reach unmanageable scales (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
2017). Second, are the healthcare preparedness and response activities; the plan will explain
through the adoption of a model country strategies that would ensure the healthcare systems
provide quality care to the potentially high numbers of infected patients. Scientific infrastructure
and preparedness would be emphasized to ensure effectiveness in the manufacture of drugs, the
reliability of logistics and effective, timely and consistent flow of information from all
stakeholders in response to a pandemic.
Med, A. J. (2005, June). Disaster planning: Potential effects of an influenza pandemic on
community healthcare resources. Retrieved March 20th, 2018, from US National Library
of Medicine :
Timothy C. Germann, Kai Kadau, Ira M. Longini and Catherine A. Macken. (2006, April 16th).
Mitigation strategies for pandemic influenza in the United States. Retrieved March 20th,
2018, from Proceedings of th National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). Pandemic Influenza Plan 2017
UPDATE. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Wolrd Health Organisation. (2005). WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the
Human/Animal Interface. Wolrd Health Organisation.

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