Apollodorus of Damascus

Surname 1
Apollodorus of Damascus
As a Greek engineer, Apollodorus of Damascus designed several works which include
the Trajan’s bridge which passed over the Danube (Blyth, 127). His major works were conducted
in Trajan where he constructed the Trajan’s temple, as well as, the Trajan’s walls in Rome
(Blyth, 128). Apollodorus died as a celebrated engineer and a designer who built several works
that most people connect to, some of his major works have formed the basis of studies in
engineering, as well as, the fields of design and planning. This paper, therefore, seeks to analyze
some of the works that Apollodorus of Damascus planned and designed and some of which
formed the basis for the engineering profession and design profession.
The life of Apollodorus of Damascus is mostly related to those works that he designed
and built while working for Emperor Trajan; these have mostly been christened as the Trajan’s
buildings which represent the bridge, the temple, and the column. The construction can then be
classified as construction during the reigns of Trajan and the constructions during the reigns of
Hadrian who succeeded Trajan.
Works by Apollodorus of Damascus
The main works of Apollodorus of Damascus include Trajan’s column, Trajan’s forum,
triumphal arches of Trajan, and works at Ancona (Calcani et al. 203). Other works that are
associated with the Apollodorus of Damascus include Alconetar Bridge in Spain. The works
formed a foundation for the architecture and designs. The academic foundations of the
Surname 2
Apollodorus works have been applied in many architectural designs. Most of the works by
Apollodorus of Damascus were designed in the second century, 2 A.D. He worked majorly for
the Roman emperor during the second century designs which he made.
However, Apollodorus faced banishment by Emperor Hadrian. The banishment followed
disagreement that the two had over the design which should have been followed to build the
temple. The executions which followed also reached 130 executions from the disagreements at
the time with Apollodorus surviving the execution but facing the banishment from the king.
Apollodorus had various achievements including the villa at the Tivoli which most scholars
believe was an impression of himself. The works by Apollodorus put him in direct conflict with
the emperor at the time being Emperor Hadrian.
The works by Apollodorus had some similarities in their characteristics which
distinguished them from the works of other designers. As an engineer and a designer,
Apollodorus made an outstanding impression that were virtually accepted as the benchmark in
the engineering profession and presented the best designs and built using stones that changed the
previous designs that had been developed for the same buildings. Most of the buildings and
structures by Apollodorus had a definite shape which was round in shape with a square
foundation. The columns were identical in most of the works that Apollodorus prepared. The
works of Apollodorus of Damascus appeared to lean towards the new design that was a liberal
architectural design at the time. However, some scholars argued that the works were based on the
political statements of the time.
In designing the architectural designs and coming up with the engineering details,
Apollodorus focused on both the social, economic, and political impression of the time.
Environmental impression and the landscaping was also part of the design mechanism employed
Surname 3
by the architects. The works of design and architecture mostly sent the political messages. The
emperors used the architecture and designs at the time to show the superiority and to send
various messages in the end.
The specific work of Apollodorus of Damascus that will be discussed in this paper is the
Trajan’s column; this is one of the essential works that was done by Apollodorus of Damascus
given the nature of the work and the magnificence of the works (Calcani et al. 23). Today, the
work stands out as one of the most outstanding and well thought designs in the architectural
world. The works of Apollodorus of Damascus were specific, and the Trajan’s works were one
of the works that exemplified the specificity of the works of Apollodorus of Damascus. In
analyzing these works, the Trajan is an example of the magnificence that promotes political
messages and gives a socio and cultural impression (Ceccarelli et al. 83).
Characteristics of Apollodorus Designed structures
The structures that were designed and built by Apollodorus had some similarities
regarding the shape, the building techniques used, the impression created, and the interior design,
as well as, the exterior designs of the buildings (Woods, 28). Most of the buildings that were
designed by Apollodorus consisted of columns which were cylindrical. The works, however,
ranged from rectangular shaped to square. However, each of the corners of the structures was
made using cylindrical columns. The columns were designed in such a way that the materials
used to develop the columns and the beams were marble. Marble remains one of the materials
that are used in the construction of most buildings at the time of Apollodorus of Damascus.
Inside the structures developed there existed various pictures and various idols that
depicted the Emperorship and the political achievements of various the Emperors. Most of the
works by Apollodorus was constructed either during the period of Emperor Trajan or at the time
Surname 4
of Emperor Hadrian. This implies that the works of Apollodorus had some political connections.
They sent political statements in a manner in which various aspects were erected in the buildings
and in the way the structures faced each other and the nature of the arrangement of different
portraits in the buildings. The patterns and the textures of the buildings and the structures had the
same similarity in the form of feel and the form of arrangements of the activities and different
placements in the buildings.
The arrangement of the rooms and the floor areas exhibited similarities in the sense of the
area covered in the rooms. The paintings on the floor were made using bright colors and the
colors that are white to yellow. The colors that were being used are those colors that can easily
be recognized from a distance. Cognoscibility is one of the objectives that Apollodorus achieved
in his designs and the buildings. The buildings were mostly conspicuous compared to those
buildings that had been designed earlier on by the early architects. The new architectural works
that were being championed by Apollodorus were not only to send political messages, but they
also showed their conspicuous nature.
The structures had specific features which made them different from the other structures.
The features also made a difference with the conventional architectural designs that had been in
use in the Rome Empire for a long period (Prina, 75). Personification is one of the common
features of the works of Apollodorus of Damascus. Personification in culture and literature refers
to a situation where non-living activities are given life by descriptions to fit the living
descriptions. In the case of the buildings by Apollodorus, the role of Emperor Trajan and the role
of women and men were personified in the construction of the column. This is about the
conquest that had been made by the Trajan Emperor of the Dacia during the 2 A.D.
Trajan Works
Surname 5
Apollodorus developed a penchant for Trajan where he developed and designed the most
prominent works including the Trajan’s Bridge, Trajan’s temple, and Trajan’s column all within
the city of Rome. Other works that were designed by Apollodorus include the Triumphal arches
of Trajan which was specific at Beneventum and other works at triumphal arches at Ancona.
These works are the best illustration of the Apollodorus works that has been in place since their
inception. The nature of the works is linked to Emperor Trajan hence the name Trajan works.
They were, however, designed by Apollodorus of Damascus in the 2 A.D while some of the
works were designed after the reign of the Trajan, this provides the two works to be the ones
designed during the reign of Trajan and those that were designed and built during the reign of
Hadrian who succeeded Emperor Trajan. However, some of these works were later destroyed
because of wars and other reasons that occurred in the middle ages. The designs were bridges
and temples, as well as, the market place. Trajan is derived from the Emperor who reigned at the
time and whose names were used in the building of the structures. The authorities to build these
structures were given by the senate. They wanted the buildings to honor the great Trajan for his
various conquests.
Trajan’s forum is one work which was designed by Apollodorus in the second century
A.D. The Trajan’s forum was the last of the imperial fora. Emperor Trajan ordered the building
and design of the forum after the end of the war with the Dacia; the war ended in 106. What was
obtained from the war with Dacia formed the materials that were used in building the forum in
the end. However, some excavations were made for the Trajan’s forum in the process. When the
project was being executed there were several activities that were done in the process which
included the construction of Trajan’s market, the process of renovating Caesar’s forum, as well
as, building of the temple at the point of Genetrix.
Surname 6
The structure of the forum is such that there was a large portico piazza that measures
approximately 300 meters by 185 meters. The external side has other two sides known as the
exedrae. The entrance to the forum is on the north of the forum, this entrance is painted with the
white blocks but has other white marbles which form part of the decorations of the structures. In
the middle exists a huge statue of the emperor Trajan which overlooks the entrance. The
structure was continuous and presents style and elegance. The north of the structure denoted a
smaller piazza with the statue of Trajan looking the inside of the buildings. This dedication
indicates the political message that the structure presented concerning the Trajan’s influence on
the project and the works of the Apollodorus of Damascus.
The structure and the paintings of the forum also presented the modern architecture at the
2 A.D. Towards the North was also dedicated to Ulpia. The modern times present the market as
columns with different historical and economic importance. The market also presents political
news and shows political importance. The modern day structure is also of importance as it shows
the possibility of building the structures based on the benchmarks set in the fields of architecture
and design. Most of the columns which were originally built in the system have remained to
stand with some of the structures being re-erected in the modern times.
Trajan’s column was exclusively built and designed for Emperor Trajan; this was part of
the political statement that was designed and constructed under the authority of the Roman
senate. The structure is built near the hills of Quarinal. Quarinal hills are located to the north of
the Roman Forum. The hill and the forum provides a panoramic view due to the landscape which
is developed in the area. Together with the column, the design brings out what has been known
to be the most magnificent designs in the recent history of architecture and engineering design.
The structure is designed to have pedestals, and this makes it a visually appealing design.
Surname 7
The height of the design, together with the pedestal, is 30 meters. This represents the
height of the column and the pedestal. The length of the same pedestal and the column is also 35
meters long. The column s also made up of a series of marbles which numbers 20 shafts. The
marble drums are the drums of Carrara. Each of the drums weighs approximately 32 tons, and
each has a diameter of 3.7 meters. There also exists a 190 meter frieze winds which expands in
its base with an estimated 1 meter at the base and 1.2 towards the top of the frieze.
The scenes presented are continuous and present different perspective of the column.
This is one of the works that remains with cultural and political significance to the Roman
emperor and remains the main reminder of the Trajan’s emperor earlier on in the second century,
2 A.D. The work shows different angles of the column and the forum presented in several ways
shows the modern design of the system and the proper development of the Trajan’s column in
the process. The perspective of the Trajan’s column indicates a victory that the Trajan obtained
from the two battles he fought with Dacia. The first half of the building portrays the victory that
was obtained by Trajan in the wars with Dacia in 101-102 A.D (Claridge, 55).
The building design and the frieze showed various activities that occurred in the conquest
and presented the ultimate objective of the Trajan which was to capture Dacia, conquer Dacia
and expand his territory an objective which Trajan achieved and an objective which he later
exemplified in his works by building the column. The other events that are portrayed by the work
include the crossing of the River Danube by the legion. The second process involves the Trajan’s
voyage crossing the river, the third event denoting the surrender of the Dacians after a pursuit by
the Trajan’s army. After the close of the first war then there is the Trajan’s sacrifice and the end
of the first war. There are developed two sections of the system that denotes the personified
victory that was obtained by Trajan over the Dacians in the two different wars. Trajan’s work by
Surname 8
Apollodorus was, therefore, a political statement made to commemorate the conquest and the
expansion of the Trajan’s empire.
The objective of going to war with the Dacia was to conquer Dacia and expand Trajan’s
territory. After the conquest, the shift then turned on the Dacia to incorporate and become part of
the Roman Empire. Becoming part of the Roman Empire would imply that they submit to the
Trajan and his rules that existed at the time of the submission. Part of the integration of the Dacia
to be part of the Roman Empire would imply that Dacia pays allegiance to Trajan. The events
that proceeded are put in the form that depicts its nature in the architectural work which was
developed by the Apollodorus in the Trajan’s column.
The frieze also repeats several scenes which denote the imperial address known as the
adlocutio, the sacrifice made by different people in the fights known as lustratio, the army that
had been setting up for the military encounter and conquest known as the profectio. The scenes
where there is military encounters present a case where they are the minority of the scenes in the
Frieze and presents a scenario where they are the minimum of all the depictions made in the
frieze (Claridge, 56). The frieze also shows how the military engagements were fashioned during
the times of the war, the column is majorly on the conquest and conquer of the Dacia by the
Trajan. The conquest is considered to be one of the achievements of Emperor Trajan in the
history of the Roman Empire.
The work sets the differences that were made by men and women in the process of
promoting Trajan’s conquest objectives. The distinction is also given by the contributions that
were made by the players on the side of Trajan and the players who were on the side of Dacia.
Those who were on the side of Trajan were working with the objective of ensuring that Trajan
captures Dacia while those who were on the side of Dacia were resisting the conquest and the
Surname 9
war that was mounted by Trajan. The two factions are represented in the Trajan’s column, and
that presents the opportunity for the narration of the struggle. This forms part of the
understanding of the conquest in a better way by the generations to come and also promotes the
culture of the Roman architecture.
Roman architectures are known to design most of their buildings and structures
surrounding a specific message, the message that the Apollodorus of Damascus wanted to
portray in the design of the Trajan’s work was that of the political superiority of Trajan emperor.
The planning, design and the execution of the architectures were part of the disguised political
messages that Apollodorus wanted to pass about the prominence and power of Trajan that made
him conquer the Dacia. The process was also essential to understanding the system and how the
system worked to enable people to understand what happened and the encounters that led to the
expansion of the Roman Empire under Trajan.
In work, women are put towards the margin of the buildings and columns. However,
there are also other women who are put at the center. This is due to the central role they played
during the war with the Dacia. The idea of women feminizing the warfare is also a concept that
is understood and developed in the process of understanding the foreign conquest. During the
time of the war, women did not take part in the armed struggle, most women played the roles of
subjugating and feminizing the war, thereby making the women operate from the sidelines which
are depicted in work by placing the women at the margin. Their roles were also important in the
conquest. There are also other women who are considered mortal as they had also participated in
the armed conflict in the process of the conquest.
Trajan as an emperor is depicted in a veristic style by Apollodorus of Damascus. The
presentations of the images are taken as the objective historical truth in the works. There are also
Surname 10
different scenes which are full of sailors who number 2,500 figures in total. Trajan the emperor
himself makes about 59 appearances in the architectural works. The army is also portrayed as
being gentle in the Trajan’s column. Apollodorus of Damascus worked towards making the
reality be understood using his design works most of which were in praise of Emperor Trajan.
The Trajan’s column is a testament to what the design and engineering design can make and the
message that the process can bring about. The column of Trajan remains one of the most
prominent works ever done by Apollodorus of Damascus.
The column was used to further the propaganda that was championed by Emperor Trajan
in the conquest. However, the problem that the Trajan’s column has continued to experience is
the problem of visibility of some of the parts of the column. The upper parts of the column have
remained invisible over the period that the column has been in existence. The column having
been faced in the north-most point presents a challenge to the system. The system had an upper
viewing which then changed in the process that now ensures low visibility of the highest points
of the columns. Other scholars have also argued that the column has led to divisions within the
Roman Empire as it serves to remind most people of the pains and troubles that the Dacia went
The column was built to serve the purpose of commemoration and to serve the purpose of
uniting people. The column has also been used as a glorifying monument for the Roman people.
People uphold Trajan as the Rome’s greatest emperor; this is because of the structures that were
built and named after Trajan. Apollodorus of Damascus designed most of these structures. He
ensured that his legacy was promoted through the design and engineering of various structures.
Trajan column as work was used for sending the political statements about the conquest that had
been made by Emperor Trajan of the Rome Empire at the time (Rossi, 50).
Surname 11
Temple of Trajan
The temple of Trajan is the second Trajan work that was designed and built by
Apollodorus of Damascus. Just like the Trajan’s column the temple of Trajan was built with the
purpose of dedicating the temple to Emperor Trajan and his wife known as Plotina. The temple
was built by the successor of Emperor Trajan who was known as Emperor Hadrian. The temple
was built in the years between 125 and 138. However, the temple was later destroyed during the
middle age period. The temple was destroyed during the period that is considered as the period
of change when things were changing in the Roman Empire, and a new order was taking shape in
the Roman Empire.
In the construction and the design of the temple, there is evidence which suggests that a
granite column existed with a marble capital which is approximately 2.12 meters high. This
particular building is credited to the reigns of Hadrian and is connected to the magnificent works
that have been constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus. The temple is the only Trajan building
where Hadrian’s name was affixed according to his wishes and how he planned the structures.
The temple had dimensions which have been considered to be large. Trajan as the Emperor was
buried in the basement of the temple. The temple also depicted the works with paints and
different dimensions like the present interior finishing with cultural elements that gives the touch
of style and culture.
Most of Apollodorus designed buildings were painted white. Apollodorus designed and
constructed these buildings in two different reigns, the first construction under the reign of
Trajan and the second construction was made under the reigns of Emperor Hadrian. The two
designs and the two sets of buildings took after one another with both of them being used to
show political superiority. The sites of the two buildings were the Northern part of the Empire.
Surname 12
Most scholars believe that the main objectives for constructing and design in the two different
periods were because of the two different political messages that needed to be sent by the two
The ultimate goal of architecture is to promote the culture of people. Culture is both
organic and supra-organic. There are also the aspects of the material culture and those aspects of
culture which are considered to be immaterial in the sense that they are not tangible. In keeping
up with the characteristic of the Roman Empire culture, the paintings and the interior finishing
was part of the cultural improvements that hit the Roman Empire during the time. The two
emperors were essential in the development of the buildings and the structures, therefore,
developed an architectural culture that is identified with the Roman people.
Most of the works of Apollodorus were designed using the marbles. The application of
the marbles is an essential part of the designs together with the white paintings that are also
identified with the works. The interior and exterior finishes of the structures that were designed
during this time. The main objective of the designs and buildings, however, remained the
political connection that involved the capture of the Dacia by Trajan and the paying of tribute to
Trajan by Emperor Hadrian; these two are considered to be the greatest Emperors in the Roman
history (Smith and Kendra, 201). The works of Apollodorus of Damascus presents the
architectural design and engineering works that are being followed as the principle of
architecture and the principle of contiguity as far as relations between the architecture and
culture is concerned.
Apollodorus has been referred to as the architect of Trajan; this is because of the works
that Apollodorus made during the time of Emperor Trajan. Apollodorus fit the function of
propaganda war chief for Trajan. He promoted the ideals of Trajan using his architectural
Surname 13
drawings and the architectural designs. Apollodorus is well recognized for his role in promoting
the Roman designs and Roman culture in most of his architectural works. The works by
Apollodorus is a careful work that is considered to be an epitome of considerations of all the
aspects of architecture. The considerations include the aspects of the environment, economic and
financial considerations, culture, social and political considerations.
Most of the paintings of the Apollodorus of Damascus works were bright colored
paintings. The bright colored paintings had formed part of the identification of the designs and
the structures of the buildings (Woods, np). The use of marble with a basement of large
diameters and large lengths are some of the characteristics of the structures designed by
Apollodorus of Damascus. What has been outstanding in the structures of Apollodorus’s works
was the personification of the structures. Inside the structures depicted one r two issues with the
most common being the depiction of the war that ended up in the capture of the Dacia people.
Trajan’s Bridge
Trajan’s bridge is another structure that was designed by Apollodorus during the reign of
Emperor Trajan. Trajan’s bridge passed over the River Danube. This bridge was the segmental
arch bridge which was designed and built by Apollodorus of Danube during 105 A.D. Emperor
Trajan instructed Apollodorus to design a bridge over River Danube that would be in the shape
of an arc. This was to be completed before the second Dacian war that would lead to the capture
and conquer of Dacian Empire. This was to facilitate the movement of Roman soldiers from the
Trajan’s empire to the Dacian Empire (Smith and Kendra, 201). The main objective of the bridge
was for logistical facilitation with the movement of troops being at the center of construction of
the Bridge.
Surname 14
During the time of construction, the bridge remained one of the longest bridges in the
history of bridge construction. Trajan’s bridge was located to the east of the Iron Gates. This
place is the modern day Drobeta-Turnu Severin in what is known as the modern day Romania
and the Klodovo areas which are situated in Serbia. The construction of this bridge was as a
result of an order given by Emperor Trajan during the Dracian war with the aim of facilitating
the war. The bridge was 1,135 meters in length (the Danube is currently 800 m), approximately
15 m in width, and 19 meters in its height, this is the measurement taken from the surface of the
river. Towards each of the individual ends existed a castrum, each of the castrum was built at the
entrance, such that to cross the bridge it is possible to walk from one camp to the next.
The castra were known as the Pontes and others were also called Drobeta. Towards the right
river bank, the present village known as Kostol next to Kladovo, one castrum Pontes existed
with what was a settlement; this civilian settlement was built in 103. The settlement lied on
several hectares and its design and building coincided with the design and building of the bridge
across River Danube. Today the Remnants of Castrum estimated to be 40 meters in length can
still be seen in the place where they were initially built. However, the ceramic fragments, the
markings of the bricks, as well as the coins in the area have been excavated and removed.
The bronze head that is believed to be that of Emperor Trajan has been found in one of the
Pontes. This bronze is believed to have been part of a statue placed at the entrance of the bridge,
and they have been kept at National Museum in Belgrade. The bank to the left had a Drobeta
castrum. A bronze statue of Trajan existed on the same side of the bridge. In the construction of
the Bridge Apollodorus of Damascus applied materials like the wooden arches, which spanned
at about 38 m which were also set on about twenty pillars of masonry which were also made of
mortar, bricks, and cement. The bridge was built within a record of 2 years that is the period
Surname 15
between the years 103 and 105. This site employed the construction of caisson on each of the
pier, the caisson being wooden.
Apollodorus used one technique known as river flow relocation. This technology used the
basic principles that had been initially set by Thales of Miletus about six hundred years ago. In
this principle, Engineers worked by waiting for a low water level to set in for them to make a
canal. For the project, the canal was made towards the west of the modern downtown of
Kladovo. Water was then redirected to a distance of about 2 kilometers towards the downstream
just from the main construction site (Smith and Kendra, 201). This followed through one lowland
known as the Ključ region and then got directed to the location of one of the modern day village
known as Mala Vrbica. In the construction, there was a wooden pillar which was driven right
into the river bed and made to appear in a rectangular manner. The pillar then served as
the basement that supported the piers. The piers were then coated with clay materials.
In the construction there were hollow piers that were filled with stones, the piers were
then fastened together using mortar to hold the bricks and stones together. In the outside, the
buildings were built in a round shape together with Roman bricks. Today, the bricks are still
visible and can still be seen in the village of Kostol. The bricks retain similar physical
characteristics existed about 2000 years ago. The physical properties were such that the piers
were estimated to be 44.46 meters high, 17.78 meters wide, and 50.38 meters apart.
It has been assumed that the materials for the bridge construction were assembled on the
land after which the installation on the pillars was done after the assembly of the materials on
land (Woods, np). What was used as a mitigating circumstance in the same year that the
relocation of canals was completed, and the water levels went down. During the building of the
foundation, the river bed was drained, and the water level was then brought down. An
Surname 16
approximated 20 pillars at an interval of 50 meters between the pillars were then used in the
erection of the pillars and building of the foundation. The oak wood was applied, and the bridge
then raised to high ground to permit the ship transport materials on the Danube.
The bricks have a value attached to them. The value is a historical value. This value is
also intrinsic value to the people who existed in the Trajan territory and the Romans. Most of
these people had participated in the construction of the bridge and the Trajan buildings. Most of
the people who participated in the construction of the bridge carved their names into the bridge
and the units of the bridge thereby forming and giving a historical attachment to the bricks used
in the process.
Constructing the Trajan’s bridge is believed to be part of the a project which consisted of
digging the sideway canals with the objectives of ensuring that the whitewater rapids are
avoided, and this then made River Danube safe and secure so that navigation could take place,
there was also the building of river fleet, as well as, putting up the defense posts, with the
development of the intelligence service at the border stations. One of the problems faced during
the transportation and construction was the problem of the Iron Gate Cataract. The cataract made
navigation impossible during the spell of low waters (Smith and Kendra, 201). There was also
rocky areas with some areas being lumpy as well. Across the Danube, the navigation was also
There was a need for heavy equipment which was necessary for the huge lifting boulders
which were found on the river bed at the same time dragging the boulders. However, time did
not allow dragging the boulders to the bank of the River. The Roman engineers including
Apollodorus then decided to cut the canal through the stone slopes on the west bank. This
process began at the Iron Gate, moving upstream up to the point where there were rapids. This
Surname 17
point appeared at a downstream in what is called Novi Sip today. The evidence of the works is
shown by the remains of the banks of the river which protected the entire area during the period
of construction of the canal indicates the magnitude of the works. The length was 3.2 kilometers.
However, the canal bypassed the problematic section of the river in an arch-like style. Former
canals were filled with sand, and empty shells are regularly found in the ground.
The works in constructing the Trajan Bridge served as the main objective of preparing for
the Dacia. This invasion ended with the Conquest of Dacia and marking the Roman victory in
106 AD. The aftermath of defeating the Dacians and capturing their ore-rich land was an
achievement so great that Roman theatrical shows celebrated the conquest for a record 123 days,
this was done with 10,000 gladiators who engaged in the fights, as well as, 11,000 wild animals
that were killed during the period of celebration (Woods, np).
Tabula Traiana
This is known as the Roman memorial plaque ("Tabula Traiana"), it is approximated that
it measures 4 meters in width and 1.75 meters in height. This memorial plaque commemorates
the process of completion of Trajan's military road which is located on the side of Serbia which
faces Romania at a point known as Ogradina. In 1972, during the construction of the Iron Gate I
Hydroelectric Power Station the plaque was moved from its original location and put at the
present place. Hadrian upon succeeding Trajan dismantled the wooden superstructure. His main
idea from dismantling the wooden superstructure was to protect the empire from any invasion
that would arise from the north. Hadrian ordered the destruction of the superstructure by fire.
Summary and Conclusion
Apollodorus of Damascus is known as the architect of Trajan since he is associated with all
the works that are connected to Emperor Trajan. He is also associated with the works of Emperor
Surname 18
Hadrian. His works flourished in the 2 A.D. His notable works include the Trajan temple, Trajan
column, and the Trajan Bridge (Claridge, 55). His main works had similar characteristics
regarding the design, shape, and the color regarding impressions.
The designs made by Apollodorus include Trajan's Forum, the Temple of Trajan,
and Trajan's Column that appeared within the city of Rome (Packer, 162). There are also other
projects of smaller scopes that Apollodorus participated. Other works that were designed by
Apollodorus include the triumphal arches of Trajan which is at a place called Beneventum , as
well as, others arches which are located at Ancona (Hill, 155). Apollodorus is mostly credited as
an architect of the third iteration of the Pantheon, and he is often cited as the builder of
the Alconétar Bridge constructed in Spain (Hill, 155). In the year 106 Apollodorus restored
the Odeon of Domitian that had begun in the Campus Martius under Domitian (Hill, 155).
One of his most celebrated works is the Column. This column is celebrated as being the first
triumphal monument of its kind in the Roman Empire. After the death of Trajan Hadrian
ascended to power then banishing Apollodorus after ridiculing him. He was then charged with
other crimes after his banishment. The works of Apollodorus, however, continue to stand out in
the case of the architectural improvement. The works Apollodorus formed the benchmark for the
best architectural designs in the second century. Even though some of the works were destroyed
during the middle age, they remained the point of reference for a longer period. Apollodorus is,
therefore, celebrated in the world of architecture and design for the manner in which he built the
monumental structures and how constructed the structures under some of the most difficult
situations. Before his banishment by Hadrian Apollodorus had made a mark and left a difference
in the architectural world.
Surname 19
Works Cited
Blyth, P. H. "Apollodorus of Damascus and the Poliorcetica." Greek, Roman, and Byzantine
Studies 33.2 (1992): 127-158.
Ceccarelli, Marco, and Paolo De Paolis. "A brief account on roman machines and cultural
frames." International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms. Springer,
Dordrecht, 2009.
Calcani, Giuliana, and Maamoun Abdulkarim. Apollodorus of Damascus and Trajan's column:
from tradition to project. L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2003.
Claridge, Amanda. "Hadrian's lost Temple of Trajan." Journal of Roman Archaeology 20 (2007):
Hill, Philip V. "Some architectural types of Trajan." The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of
the Royal Numismatic Society 5 (1965): 155-160.
Packer, James E. "Trajan's Forum again: the Column and the Temple of Trajan in the master plan
attributed to Apollodorus (?) 1." Journal of Roman Archaeology 7 (1994): 163-182.
Prina, Francesca. Architecture: Elements, materials, form. Princeton University Press, 2008.
Rossi, Lino. Trajan's column and the Dacian wars. Cornell University Press, 1971.
Smith, Albert C., and Kendra Schank Smith. Building the Architect's Character: Explorations in
Traits. Routledge, 2017.
Woods, Ann. "ART 258 Introduction to Art History I."

Place new order. It's free, fast and safe

550 words

Our customers say

Customer Avatar
Jeff Curtis
USA, Student

"I'm fully satisfied with the essay I've just received. When I read it, I felt like it was exactly what I wanted to say, but couldn’t find the necessary words. Thank you!"

Customer Avatar
Ian McGregor
UK, Student

"I don’t know what I would do without your assistance! With your help, I met my deadline just in time and the work was very professional. I will be back in several days with another assignment!"

Customer Avatar
Shannon Williams
Canada, Student

"It was the perfect experience! I enjoyed working with my writer, he delivered my work on time and followed all the guidelines about the referencing and contents."

  • 5-paragraph Essay
  • Admission Essay
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Article Review
  • Assignment
  • Biography
  • Book/Movie Review
  • Business Plan
  • Case Study
  • Cause and Effect Essay
  • Classification Essay
  • Comparison Essay
  • Coursework
  • Creative Writing
  • Critical Thinking/Review
  • Deductive Essay
  • Definition Essay
  • Essay (Any Type)
  • Exploratory Essay
  • Expository Essay
  • Informal Essay
  • Literature Essay
  • Multiple Choice Question
  • Narrative Essay
  • Personal Essay
  • Persuasive Essay
  • Powerpoint Presentation
  • Reflective Writing
  • Research Essay
  • Response Essay
  • Scholarship Essay
  • Term Paper
We use cookies to provide you with the best possible experience. By using this website you are accepting the use of cookies mentioned in our Privacy Policy.