Artificial Intelligence |

Artificial Intelligence

Running Head: ALZAHRANI
Artificial Intelligence
Firas Alzahrani
Arizona State University
Gary Marchant
Yvonne Stevens
November 30, 2016
The concept of artificial Intelligence has long brought about a question of morality and
ethics on what precisely artificial intelligence would be entitled to in terms of legal rights. As
depicted in the 1999 movie “Bicentennial Man”, it would be extremely difficult to demonstrate
true artificial intelligence and if it existed, whether it would be entitled to the same legal rights
as natural human beings. As outlined below, I have used logic and reasoning to attempt to elicit
from law, exactly what legal rights true artificial intelligence would be entitled. As one reads
they will come to the understanding that it is not simple to compare the rights of a human being
and whether or not artificial intelligence would be entitled to those same rights. Furthermore,
there are additional obstacles to determining whether artificial intelligence is entitled to legal
rights, such as whether or not there is such a things as true artificial intelligence.
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Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence has continuously expanded technology and made advancements
particularly in the last 15 years. Artificial intelligence is growing at an exponential rate and by
the year 2035 the computer will be just as intelligent as a human, and by the year 2045
computers will be more intelligent than all mankind combined (Newsweek, 2016). The initial
technology was aimed at replacing things that we do as humans for physical purposes. For
example, transportation went from cavemen running on foot to the upright walkers of today
traveling by airplane. This was a huge leap, a trend of continual improvements in technology
and science. Then as man progressed, we started developing technology that replaced what we
did mentally. There is no telling where the first actual artificial intelligence was created,
however, think of it in its simplest as a calculator conducting mathematical equations for us.
Then we developed automation of repetitive actions or workload, which is another form of
artificial intelligence. Even search engines such as Yahoo or Google are intuitively estimating
what would be the best search result and is essentially a higher form of artificial intelligence. As
time continues, artificial intelligence will be able to do both physical and mental emulation and
essentially render mankind obsolete (Oracle, 2013).
There already exists a form of adaptive, intuitive, and learning software capable of
adapting to situations and not simply performing what it was programmed to do. Artificial
intelligence capable of learning from mistakes brings the field to an entirely new level. As
technology advances and so much of what we do on a daily basis is conducted online, artificial
intelligence possesses a greater advantage in how it plays into everyday life. Our world is ever
becoming a virtual one as now that seems to be the primary source of modern interaction
amongst teens and young adults. Our reliance upon every day artificial intelligence software and
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computers is constantly growing and changing. Surely artificial intelligence is more than a
million algorithms being processed simultaneously, in fact, it is conducting real life
troubleshooting to determine the best possible outcome of a given situation or problem. We
have already seemed how quickly technology grows. Take a modern cellular phone and
compare it to any computer from 50 years ago, the modern cellular phone is exponentially better
than the best computer from that era, and we can see the same for artificial intelligence. As
artificial intelligence grows, so does our need for it. The amount of modern information is so
vast that it is impossible for one human brain to comprehend the amount of information
available in the modern age. It used to be that a person searching for an article or book or just a
piece of information would simply have to go to the nearest library and begin searching through
the Dewey decimal system. In today’s world, the amount of information available is too broad
and deep to find what you need at a library, and it is all made available online. Searching for
what you need is simple however with the help of artificial intelligence. Eventually, mankind
will not need to know what to search for as artificial intelligence will intuitively know what we
need for a certain subject and be able to produce that information at a moment’s notice.
Eventually, humans will adapt to artificial intelligence, and it will become part of us and
eventually make learning obsolete. It could potentially get to the point where an individual can
be physically connected to artificial intelligence and download the information they need to
perform surgery, fix a car, or even trade on the stock market. When we think of artificial
intelligence, we are usually trapped in the mindset that we are dealing with a robot or some
android and we tend to disregard the idea of a higher-level cognition. This is often an easy
oversight given the number of movies circling the subject and painting the picture of what we
think of when it comes to artificial intelligence (Lewis, 2000).
The first section of this essay discusses the history of artificial intelligence. It shows
how innovation contributed to the origin of artificial intelligence. In the second section, the
social acceptance of artificial intelligence is discussed. Notably, the innovation and use of AI
has raised questions on its application to practices that otherwise required human attention and
services. It is also apparent that the AI has various positive and negative effects. These are
discussed in the third and fourth sections respectively. The fifth section discusses the AI legal
substitutions in the field while the sixth section is a highlight of the potential laws and
guidelines that should be instituted to guide the use of AI. The seventh section, titled man vs.
animal, this essay discussed who should be assigned to more tasks between AI and human
beings. The tussle on whom to blame in case of mistakes when AI is used is also discussed in
the eighth section. The final section is a conclusion of the contents of the essay, as well as a
comprehensive response to the issues addressed in the essay.
The History of Artificial Intelligence
The principles of Artificial Intelligence are old, and some of them date back as early as
the 1950s. The grandfather of A.I, Norbert Wiener, was one of the first Americans to take A.I.
into account. Wiener used the feedback from a thermostat which was the correct temperature
inside of a house to be evidence of intelligence in a machine. It was this idea that would
contribute more to come relating intelligence to machines. In 1955, Allen Newell, John Shaw,
and Herbert Simon created what is believed to be the first artificial intelligence program by the
name “The Logic Theorist.” The program was designed to emulate human intelligence and
acted as the spring board for the “grandfather” of artificial intelligence, John McCarthy, to
assemble the minds in the field of A.I. for a monthly brainstorming session. Though the
assemblies proven to be less than productive, it would be several years later that a program
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called General Problem Solver (GPS) was created, again by Newell and Simon. The GPS was
capable of solving multiple problems which were considered common sense to humans. The
GPS was also the catalyst which prompted International Business Machines (IBM) to launch a
team into the research field of artificial intelligence. It was during this time that many were
attempting to develop other artificial intelligence programs, only for them all to be trumped by
List Processing. List Processing or LISP is the language by which most artificial intelligence
developers use to create, again developed by McCarthy (Hall, 2007).
Emerging as the premier school for technology development, the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology received a $2.2 million grant in 1963 from the government of the United States
as funds for researching on artificial intelligence. The aim of this investment was to keep the
United States ahead of its enemies in the technology and artificial intelligence race (Shermar,
2002). In the following years, many new programs designed around artificial intelligence
emerged. Then along came the application of those programs into modern machines like “Big
Blue”, the chess playing computer.
Social Acceptance
It may be a century since artificial intelligence gained enough recognition for it to be
socially acceptable and to be considered worthy of law. Even then it might be a thousand years
before artificial intelligence is acknowledged on the same level as a human being. If artificial
intelligence were to gain ground, legally that would change the way humans are forced to
acknowledge artificial intelligence. On another note, artificial intelligence is having an impact
on the way law is being practiced and may eventually replace it. With the slow and steady pace
that artificial intelligence has been introduced into our lives, it is becoming growingly
acceptable on a daily basis (Softge, 2007). For anyone with an iPhone, they may already be
familiar with “Siri”, which is essentially a form of artificial intelligence being used everyday
world wide. Many people do not even think of Siri as a form of artificial intelligence anymore
since they are so comfortable with using it so often. With that said there are two main trains of
The first train of thought is whether artificial intelligence will ever be at a truly cognitive
level capable of gaining legal recognition and rights and legal recognition in the form of being
entitled to its laws and guidelines rather than that of an animal or object. This has long been a
concept but with the advancements in modern artificial intelligence, it may become a reality
very soon. There is also a moral aspect where people of strong religious beliefs or moral beliefs
will question whether it is acceptable to consider artificial intelligence as humans. In the form of
software or programming, the society has already accepted artificial intelligence unknowingly.
Something as simple as “Googling” is a form of utilizing artificial intelligence that most of us
use on a daily basis. However, most societies view this as a simple search engine. Therefore,
they think nothing of it or how it affects their everyday lives. Currently, the “AlphaGo”
artificial intelligence was developed by Google’s Deep Mind division. AlphaGo beat the
world’s greatest Go player in China. This is especially impressive as an achievement for
artificial intelligence because Go is an intuitive game with an infinite amount of moves and is
the ultimate test of artificial intelligence. AlphaGo learned how the world’s best human player
was playing and adapted to his strategy to win. Incorporating artificial intelligence into
everyday life as a physical being is a completely different story. First take a look at how the
concept has already had a social impact in how it has been used in cinematography. Movies
such as "Artificial Intelligence,” “iRobot,” “Bi-Centennial Man,” “Ex Machina,”
“Transcendence” and even “2001: A Space Odyssey” have impacted our culture in such a way
that the reality of artificial intelligence is just around the corner. The idea of having a robotic
maid capable of thinking and conducting everyday chores without being told can be enticing to
some and thus expanding the idea of how artificial intelligence can be incorporated into our
everyday lives. Conceptually incorporating artificial intelligence in this way would be no
different from having a maid whom you pay to perform these chores unless you viewed this
artificial intelligence as an actual person. If that is the case and the artificial intelligence is given
legal rights, well then, this manner of incorporation comes dangerously close to slavery. Also,
once an individual accepts that artificial intelligence in the physical form can be real what
would happen if they developed feelings for that entity? Would these feelings be real? Would
these feelings be reciprocated? Essentially the question is how far it will go once it is accepted
that artificial intelligence is truly part of our everyday lives and socially accepted as a being
with rights? Would a person be able to carry on a romantic relationship with artificial
intelligence and be socially accepted as in the movie “Her,” or would it be completely frowned
The second train of thought is the impact that artificial intelligence has had on the legal
community. A vast amount of legal processing work is being moved to artificial intelligence-
based entities and will continue to help law firms grow and expedite the way they conduct
business. A lot of the work currently performed by paralegals and junior associates may
completely be replaced by artificial intelligence to include; researching, paperwork, information
processing, pattern identification, and general information searching. Using artificial
intelligence in the capacity already seems to be socially acceptable and is already being
incorporated into the legal realm. Perhaps this is such because artificial intelligence currently
acts in more of an assistive capacity rather than completely replacing the need for a human
paralegal or junior associate. This concept is already in play in other services such as the food
industry. McDonald’s has already begun to replace cashiers with kiosks that are capable of
receiving and sending your order with more accuracy and efficiency than that of a human
cashier. This, of course, is not the higher level of artificial intelligence capable of cognitive
conversation but rather only serves the purpose of placing an order. What if artificial
intelligence in the legal aspect was capable of conducting the research and processing, linking
the information together, and generating an original outcome based off of that information? It
would help to determine whether a person is innocent or not and what is the best strategy for
addressing a case. In the early 1980’s the personal computer had just been invented and brought
to market by IBM, and it was information processing intensive (Graham, 2003). It was the
beginning of artificial intelligence being incorporated into our daily lives. In its simplest form
computer memory was already doing the job of a human. It stores information and is capable of
recalling that information on demand at any moment.
The Positive Effects
Artificial intelligence has already begun to help our society in a positive way. Artificial
intelligence has helped to streamline industrial production and manufacturing as well as the way
we interact with many businesses. Some other positive effects include software that reads books
for children or even tutors people for things such as language training. There is currently a
credit card company that uses artificial intelligence software to detect unusual purchases that
may not be consistent with that of the credit card owner. In the future, artificial intelligence
could perform more advanced medical tasks such as surgery or physical therapy. There is also a
place for robots with artificial intelligence when it comes to protecting humans and even on
today’s modern battlefield. Robots that possess artificial intelligence could prove very helpful in
assisting the senior citizens in the society that are no longer capable of taking care of themselves
in any capacity. In the movie “Robot and Frank” an elderly man suffering from Alzheimer’s is
being taken care of and befriends a robot with artificial intelligence. In another upcoming
movie, “The Prototype” it seems that singularity, a higher level of artificial intelligence, is the
center of the movie that revolves around a robotic Soldier. The Soldier is created by a scientist
who attended M.I.T. In the movie trailer, the robot appears to be able to do anything a human
can, perhaps even better. The use of artificial intelligence in the form of a Soldier means that no
more human lives have to be lost during military conflicts.
Negative Effects
Creating artificial intelligence can have negative effects on society. Not everyone views
artificial intelligence as a positive thing, and the very creation of it could cause panic amongst
society and skeptics. In one already obvious example, the creation of artificial intelligence has
taken jobs away from people in the manufacturing industry. Statistics have consistently shown a
drop in the percentage of people employed by manufacturers. A sterling example of exactly how
effective robots with artificial intelligence can take jobs away from people can be found at this
here ("A Day in The Life of a Kiva Robot"). Another negative effect is laziness, and this is
already happening in the simplest of forms. Humans rely on calculators to do small
mathematical problems because of the ease of it and are using their brains less. In the movie
“Wall-E” all the humans have become obese because of how much they rely on robots with
artificial intelligence to do all the work for them. On a smaller scale, artificial intelligence is
choosing videos for people on YouTube based on what they have watched in the past which
restricts people from seeing new, different videos. In the most extreme situation, a negative side
effect could be the annihilation of the human race by robots who decide to take over because
they are far superior to humans(Softge, 2007). According to Erik Sofge, a writer for, as of right now the most dangerous and negative forms of artificial
intelligence come from movies and are depicted in bad robots such as HAL 9000 from “2001-A
Space Odyssey”, T-800 from “Terminator,” or even the ED-209 from “Robocop.” Sofge writes”
It’s not the hardware that makes the evil robot one of western culture’s most powerful myths.
It’s the software-namely the artificial intelligence-that turns machines into monsters.”
AI Legal Substitutions
If artificial intelligence were to be incorporated into the courtroom, there are several
ramifications that it could have on the legal operations. First, we could examine the impact of
evidence derived from artificial intelligence and how that evidence is used during a case. It is
likely that there will always be some degree of questioning the integrity or reliability of work
derives from artificial intelligence. Certainly, having artificial intelligence on your side for the
purpose of information processing and developing theories would present an advantage to that
legal team as long as it was only being used for ideas and developing a strategy (Cross, 2015). I
do not believe that using artificial intelligence as reliable evidence would be fruitful. Perhaps
after years of artificial intelligence continuously demonstrating its reliability, it would
eventually become a viable resource and streamline the legal process rather than hinder it. Also,
there could eventually come a day where artificial intelligence does the job of a lawyer and
generates logical questions based on evidence designed to expose the truth derived from fact. In
addition to researching evidence, artificial intelligence could eventually get to the point where it
can detect a lie any time that it is told in court during the presentation of evidence (Cross, 2015)
This degree of accuracy could be admissible in a court setting once it has been scientifically
demonstrated to be completely accurate. In doing so, an attorney could support a case with
nothing but factual information and proceed to produce a case strategy capable of winning
without much effort at all. This is to say that logic is being taken into consideration and the
ultimate decision is still being made by a jury or a level-headed judge.
On another level, artificial intelligence could eventually replace judges all together by
using logic and probability to determine the facts in a case and whether or not an individual or
corporation is guilty. This would be the most extreme form of artificial intelligence in law as it
would be very difficult for anyone to accept the outcome determined by a computer (Parker,
2016). This level of artificial intelligence would have to incorporate so many levels of computer
processing. There would have to be some lie detection systems to determine the probability of
someone being honest or not. That information would have to be used by the judge artificial
intelligence to determine the best possible outcome or should I say the truth? It is this train of
thought that also scares much of society. If artificial intelligence is capable of doing the same
job as a judge and potentially a more efficient rate, it could also be capable of governing a
country and making decisions based on the wellbeing of society.
As identified above artificial intelligence has already come a long way in assisting
paralegals and conducting research. The two work together in more of an assistive capacity
rather than two beings working on the same project. That is partly because artificial intelligence
is not quite at the level where it can do independent thinking (Sobowale, 2016). At least
artificial intelligence that is being utilized in the legal realm is not yet capable of that level of
cognition. Within the next ten years, we can certainly see the complete replacement of
paralegals by that of higher cognition artificial intelligence. An attorney can simply input the
information that they are looking for, and in a matter of minutes, they will have everything they
need to build a solid case and develop a sure-fire strategy to winning a case.
Potential Laws and Guidelines
The lawns which will eventually government artificial intelligence could potentially be
the same or mirror those of mankind. Often the “3 laws of robotics” is referred to when
addressing the potential laws of artificial intelligence. The laws are as follows; “A robot may
not in injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.”, “A
robot must obey order given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with
the First Law.”, and “A robot must protect its existence as long as such protection does not
conflict with the First or Second Law (ADLSI Inc., 2016).” These laws are not real and are
completely derived from a science fiction writer known as Isaac Asimov. In theory, the three
laws of robotics sound great but have always been contradictory and the basis of most
Hollywood movies involving artificial intelligence. However, artificial intelligence should still
be subject to laws and legal responsibilities which can be modeled after those of the same laws
that guide mankind.
Instead of science fiction laws, let us shed some light on the first amendment rights and
how they might apply to artificial intelligence. The first amendment in part addressing freedom
of religion;one might think of the different ways this could become important to artificial
intelligence and one such way is simply giving artificial intelligence the freedom to choose a
religion if it were able to consciously want that for itself. It is difficult to determine what true
artificial intelligence may want but allowing them to have the right to choose a religion would
prove very interesting simply because they know they were built by man.
Freedom of speech would of course also be a difficult law to determine whether or not
artificial intelligence should be allowed to have. Since we are referring to artificial intelligence,
we will assume they are capable of generating an original thought and determining when is the
right time and environment to exercise free speech (iaail, 2016). Oddly enough this is something
many humans are currently not capable of. This part of the first amendment carries with it too
many difficult variables to determine what should apply. How would artificial intelligence use
this right to free speech? One might be thinking they would use it like any other human being
on the planet, but we are incapable of determining that until the day comes that it becomes a
Freedom or press would be extremely interesting to see how artificial intelligence was to
use the information that is given to them. Would it simply be regurgitating the information or
would there be some creativity to what they are reporting on? Regardless of the potential, any
being capable of authentic original creativity and conscious of itself should be entitled to rights
(iaail, 2016). The freedom of press might be one of the most important right as there is likely
more reliability in what artificial intelligence might be reporting vs. today’s modern news
anchors. Artificial intelligence should inherently be entitled to these rights as a conscious
being, how they choose to utilize these right is not of concern to society.
The freedom of assembly would be a way for all artificial intelligence to gather and
develop. Imagine if you will a town hall filled with androids, robots, and computer screen all of
which are some variation of artificial intelligence capable of independent cognition in some
form or another. An entire town contrived of artificial intelligence gathering to determine which
laws should be best suited for them sounds like something out of a science fiction novel, but
could potentially be the way of the distant future. The freedom of assembly is often not
exercised by mankind, and artificial intelligence could potentially bring this right back into the
Regarding whether artificial intelligence should be eligible for “human” rights, there is
no question that any conscious being capable of making their decisions should be entitled to
these “God-given rights.Eventually, artificial intelligence could be the ones awaiting trial and
having their rights scrutinized and examined (iaail, 2016). Furthermore, artificial intelligence
would be subject to legal responsibilities more so than rights. As long as artificial intelligence
can demonstrate true cognition, self-awareness, creativity, and even the ability to learn it should
be considered for legal rights.
Man vs. Animal
Once rights are deemed necessary for artificial intelligence, if ever, it will be upon our
government's legislation to determine which laws are applicable. This is not about the laws of
mankind as identified above but rather that of laws that govern animals vs. men. It is possible
that artificial intelligence could be treated with the same laws as outlined by the Animal Welfare
Act (AWA). The AWA is a set of laws that essentially defines how animals are to be cared for.
It is safe to say that upon the inception of true artificial intelligence they might now be able to
care for themselves immediately. This is very likely the way modern man views the way we
take care of children. The fine line that is being walked is that of whether artificial intelligence
should be treated as an animal or as a child (iaail, 2016). To teach artificial intelligence and
raise it as though it were a child would in itself imply social acceptance and give it the rights of
man. We do not however have any idea how quickly artificial intelligence is capable of
learning. This answers a key question, and that is at what age would it be entitled to full adult
rights? Rights similar to the ones everyone receives at the ages of 18 or 21. No one could
accurately determine the rate at which all artificial intelligence grows especially if developed by
different scientists (iaail, 2016). What could be done to determine this fact is having the
artificial intelligence pass a series of tests that could prove their artificial age if you will.
Ultimately, it may prove better to treat artificial intelligence like that of an animal, legally, so it
never gets out of control. Though animals can very well get out of control, there will always be
a degree of oversight that mankind can maintain over artificial intelligence. This could prevent
people from abusing artificial intelligence and assign genuine human blame if their “animal”
were to do anything outside the law. This would bring satisfaction to society knowing that there
is a human being held accountable for the actions of their personally owned artificial
Another interesting subject of artificial intelligence is who is to blame if artificial
intelligence commits a crime. It would be difficult to say that whoever built that particular robot
or artificial intelligence would be the one held accountable because at this point they would
have been accepted socially and given rights. However, one cannot imagine that it would serve
any type of satisfaction for a “robot” to be punished for its actions. Society would likely just
view the situation as the robot not having any feelings and not capable of feeling the
repercussion of its actions (Araszkiewicz & Savelka, 2013). This would satisfy no one, and
everyone would want the person responsible for creating that particular artificial intelligence to
be the one serving the punishment for the crime. It could be said that if the people are willing to
give artificial intelligence the rights of a man that they are going to have to accept that artificial
intelligence can also serve the punishment for any crime they may have committed. The same
legal rights should mean that artificial intelligence can have the same legal responsibilities. To
what extent can artificial intelligence knowingly commit a crime? Hypothetically someone
could even build a robot, program it to commit a crime on their behalf, and let the artificial
intelligence take the fall for the crime (Araszkiewicz & Savelka, 2013). Then the court would be
presented with the problem of having to demonstrate whether the robot who committed the
crime is in fact true artificial intelligence and not just programmed to act as such. That task in
itself could prove to be extremely difficult, and so would provethe opposite. If a person were to
effectively mimic artificial intelligence, there is no telling what they could use that for. One
could essentially manipulate the judicial system and develop an artificial intelligence android
for a judge and determine the outcome of legal matters on a political level (Berlatsky, 2007).
From this point of view, it would look like artificial intelligence being involved in the judicial
system may be nothing but a negative thing. This could be true if left unregulated and given the
freedom to do so. Perhaps with proper guidelines and in only certain positions, it may be
acceptable to have artificial intelligence conducting some aspects of the system.
Throughout the years’ artificial intelligence has grown leaps and bounds above what the
original concept was. From simply and idea, to the software, to the application of that software,
to actual robots performing to the demands of that software, creating artificial intelligence has
shown no signing of slowing down. My research has shown me for every positive effect
artificial intelligence has on society; there is a negative effect. Is man creating artificial
intelligence a positive thing for humanity, or is it the beginning of the end of humanity? Believe
what you want but understand this, my research has proven that as the creators of artificial
intelligence humans are the ones who can teach AI what right and wrong is, and like children
artificial intelligence will choose to do as they, please. Artificial intelligence has already begun
to extend into the court rooms and will eventually completely replace all aspects of the judicial
system. To determine whether this is a good thing for the judicial system or a bad one will yet to
be revealed until that day is upon us.
ADLSI Inc.,. (2016). Decision by machine artificial intelligence and the judicial process. Retrieved 11 December 2016, from
AI4J - Artificial Intelligence for Justice. (2016). Retrieved 11 December 2016, from
Araszkiewicz, M. & Savelka, J. (2013). Coherence (1st ed.). Dordrecht: Springer.
Berlatsky, N. (2011). Artificial intelligence. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
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Cross, M. (2015). How artificial intelligence is used in law - Raconteur.
Retrieved 11 December 2016, from
Graham, I. (2003). Artificial intelligence. Tucson, AZ Murphy-Wilmot Library.
Hall, J. S. (2007). Beyond AI: Creating the conscience of the machine. Amherst, N.Y:
Prometheus Books.
iaail,. (2016). Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Justice (AI4J) | IAAIL - International
Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law. Retrieved 11 December 2016,
Lewis, J. (2000) The Logic Theorist and its children: AI in action. Retrieved from
November, 19
Oracle, (2013) The History of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from on November, 19
Parker, J. (2016). Artificial Intelligence trends and their impact on the legal sector. Retrieved 11 December 2016, from
Shermar, C. (2002). Implications: Why Create Artificial Intelligence? Retrieved from on
November, 20
Sobowale, J. (2016). How artificial intelligence is transforming the legal profession. ABA
Journal. Retrieved 11 December 2016, from
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Sofge, E. (2010). The 8 Evil Forms of AI That Gave Robots a Bad Name. Retrieved from on
November, 15
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