Breast cancer health care and management practices in the united kingdom

Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 1
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Contemporary Themes in Healthcare Policy and Practice
Professors Name
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Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 2
Executive Summary
This paper will entail the contemporary issues based on the health care and
management of the breast cancer. This cancer has mainly been among the top five causes of
the premature death in the United Kingdom. In the paper there are the descriptions of the key
factors of the management of the treatment of breast cancer and their importance, health care
management practices carried out in the treatment of breast cancer, policies and practices
involves in the cancer treatment management, organizational resources and structures,
prevention of the breast cancer and management theories and issues concerning the treatment
and control of the breast cancer. The comparison on breast cancer in UK with other countries
is also show. In the conclusion part, there are the recommendation that the government of the
United Kingdom should take so as to improve on the policies, practices, and care and
management system involved in the treatment of breast cancer.
Breast cancer is among the most common types of cancer in women in the United
Kingdom and the second leading causes of deaths in the cancer related diseases in the
country. This is a cancerous infection that affects the breast and is common in women. The
breast contains some glands that produces milk commonly, lobules, some tubes that helps in
the transportation of milk, duct and a fatty tissues with some connective tissues surrounding
the lobules and the duct, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels known as the stroma (Doll &
Peto, 2005). Cancer is defined as the abnormal growth of body cells which may lead to the
cell invasion and damage the normal cells in the part of the body where the abnormal growth
is taking place (Mozaffarian et al., 2009). This cancer of the breast can start at any of the
described part above. Management and care must be taken in consideration during the
treatment of this disease.
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 3
Scientist and other researchers have not yet known the main cause of this breast
cancer but some claim that this disease is mainly caused by the by the changes that occur in
the genetic material or the DNA in the cells of the body. The DNA changes are in most cases
related in the people’s daily lifestyle (Andersen et al., 2005). There are some risk factors that
can make one be affected by this common disease not only in the United Kingdom but also in
the whole world. Risk factors are defined as anything that can alter the chance of one getting
the disease. This can be either through increasing or decreasing the chances in any way. This
breast cancer has some risk factors (Richards, 2006). According to the condition of the
disease, there are supposed to be policy and management systems that should be strictly
followed up during the treatment of this disease in the country. This paper explains the
policies and management systems that are affecting the treatment of the breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Health Care Management
The management of this disease of breast cancer is always the same regardless of
what is being done to the patients. This can be by diagnosing the screening of the body so as
to determine whether they are affected or not affected by the breast cancer. The National
Standards of the United Kingdom dealing on the national matters concerning health has laid
down some management guidelines to be followed in the medical field of the breast cancer.
These guidelines are in consideration and been supported by the cancer Network in the
country for quality assurance and administration of the management scheme (Vander Hoorn,
Breast cancer is a common disease that should be provided up by the breast specialists
from the government in all disciplines. A multidisciplinary care unit should be provided to
manage the cause and prevention of the disease in the country. This unit should comprise of
the breast diagnostic team as many patients lack breast malignancy which may not
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 4
recognized by the breast clinic whose role is to test and treat breast cancer. This team should
comprise breast specialist mainly being the consultant surgeon with the interest of the
disease, specialist in the breast radiography field, breast care nurse, pathologist, clinical
officer and other administration staff in the team to maintain the organise the working of the
team (Mozaffarian et al., 2009). A treatment team which comprises of the both the medical
and clinical oncologist, data management panel to manage the data on the breast cancer
among others. All this teams have a local and major purpose in managing the breast cancer
operation in the country.
There are also some management guidelines on the breast referrals whose cases
should be managed within a period of forty night and their routine and style be transformed
by doing a performance on their daily protocols according to the records which are written by
the multidisciplinary teams. This diagnosis is mainly aimed at recognising all possible vast
majority majored in the invasiveness of the breast cancer with a minimum standard aimed at
achieving at least a value not less than 90% of the targeted majority group in the country. The
major ones are based on the ones detected through screening and are in most cases too hard to
detect them potentially. The minimum standard of the diagnosis which is non-operative
should be at least 85% for the minority cases in the breast cancer diagnosis of the non-
invasiveness of the affected people in the country (Murray et al., 2005).
For every breast cancer medication, there are the ability of having the treatment
guidelines which are written and should follow the agreed and formulated local breast
multidisciplinary teams which are as described above in this topic. The patient treatment
admitted to the affected people in the country should follow this guidelines, although the
guidelines clearly gives a room for some exceptional depending on the worthiness of the
guidelines and the mode of treatment that the patience is need of in the hospitals since
delaying the treatment may lead to a death of the patient. The exception which are not
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 5
followed as per the documents should also be written and documented for the continuity care
regarding the named specialist team which is undertaking the treatment process to the patient
who is affected by the breast cancer (Doll & Peto, 2005).
In the process of the following of the confirmation of so called the diagnosis of the
breast cancer and appropriate method of the treatment plan, it clearly indicates that the results
obtained by the specialist should be discussed in between the patience and the specialist who
undertook a treatment to the patience. The patients should also be much encourage and
advised on the ways they can use so to ensure that they bring a friend of theirs or partner after
the results are discussed with them for the diagnosis by the breast cancer specialist. The
person who is allowed by this regulation to conduct such a consultation on the diagnosis
should be member of the multi-disciplinary team discussed above in this topic and a breast
cancer care nurse should also be present and the incidence must be carried out in private
environment (Rodgers et al., 2002).
In management on the side of surgical treatment, the breast cancer patients should be
carried out by the surgeons who always have a special training and also interest in the breast
disease. The personnel should be able to maintain at least ten cancer cases screened annually
as it is averaged for a period of three years. The annual surgical workload done by each
personnel should be provided to the multidisciplinary meeting and an expertise and facilities
be analysed and provide by this team set up by the government to rule on the disciplinary
cases. When the decision between the clinical specialist and the patient has been concurred
that the surgical treatment has to be taken to offer the date is provided and some
reconstruction structures are planned and the logistical planning done. The waiting time for
the patience should not exceed 31 days from the date when the treatment decision was
agreed. All information concerning the surgical treatment should be provided by the clinical
officer and an operation diagnostic purpose to be carried out. A service that is pre-operative
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 6
should be investigated such as body scan of cathode tube, chest x-ray and others so that they
will not be the primary cause of the breast cancer on the patience (Dreyer et al., 2006).
Policy and Practices on Breast Cancer
The London Cancer Alliance commonly known as LCA has a guidelines provided by
this body on Breast Cancer based clinics that multidisciplinary the diagnosis guide, holistic
care and some treatment that supports the breast cancer patients in the country. These
guidelines were developed so as to act as group pathway to conform the practices that are
carried out on the treatment of the breast cancer nationally and internationally. Expertise from
the country have always been ranging the clinics that deal with breast cancer in the country
and this has subsequently lead to the reflection of a wider pathway on the breast cancer. The
evidence that provides the information on the clinic based set up have a protocol that aspects
out this pathways on the breast cancer. It has also become flexible to reflect the best practices
that are assigned up by this body to govern the treatment and control of the breast cancer in
the country (Ezzati et al., 2005).
Due to the guidelines set up by the LCA in the United Kingdom, there are some breast
care nursing under a trained and specialised nurses who have the authority of taking care of
the breast and providing the available information to a psychologists if any support is needed
to both the breast cancer patients and family members at all stages of the pathway. Before
any breast cancer diagnosis is carried out, a palliative care is strictly taken care of to the
patient and then some treatment and other follow ups are then done afterwards. This is a good
evidence that shows the demonstration of the values required in the breast care nursing health
care by the specialist nurses. According to this guidelines, the minimum set standard is set at
a point such that all patients with the breast cancer disease is that they should the hospitals
where their diagnosis are being done with their telephone detail contact to the key worker of
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 7
the hospital who is usually the breast care nurse in charge of that hospital the department of
the breast care. The aim of the nurses is to ensure that the patient understands the condition,
involve them in discussion, support their advices and reduce their somatic symptoms (Vander
Hoorn et al., 2005).
A physiotherapy trust practice service is required to the patients with the breast cancer
for both the outpatients and inpatients which specifically aims at restoring the independence
that functions and maintain the well-being across all the pathways of the breast cancer
patients. This service is done by a Physiotherapists who plays a very important role in the
rehabilitations of a breast cancer patient. This Physiotherapists should be mobile due to the
state of the disease, be an expert in the field of breast and surgical operations, be able to
educate the patients on the cause, prevention and effects of the disease and also advise them
on the same and lastly should be having enough ability to optimise the functions of the
disease (Rehm et al., 2009).
Occupational therapy is another service that the LCA set as a guidelines to help and
control in the treatment of the breast cancer. The aim of this service is to ensure that the
patient achieves the optimal independence function that is based on the problems that the
patient is undergoing. Based on this service is led by the diagnosis of the breast cancer and
some care and assistance are carried out. This should be under areas like the activities that
dignifies the treatment of the breast cancer, ensuring that the patient is able to cope with the
ability, managing the lifestyle of the patients among others (Sasieni et al., 2009).
Organizational Resources and Structures
Various organizations in United Kingdom have shown a lot of effort to venture in the
cancer research field. This has helped a lot in the discovery of the currently available
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 8
medicines. Such organizations have also helped a lot in educating people on management of
cancer. Some of these organizations are discussed below.
Cancer Research UK
This is a non-profit organization which was formed in the year 2002 with the aim of
helping cancer patients. The main aim of establishing the organization was to help reduce the
mortality rate resulting from cancer infections. Another aim is to educate the masses on how
to treat cancer and helping people understand better the cause and complexities related to
cancer. The institution has worked hard to provide suitable environment for research and
getting professionals needed to carry out research. With research being the main focus of the
organization, others are information and educating people (Jenkims et al., 2002).
The British Association for Counseling and Psychotherapy (BACP)
The organization provides people with qualified councillors who offer guidance to
cancer patients and the public on how to deal with the disease. Their services can be booked
all over the United Kingdom. The specialists help the patients deal with problems like
stigmatization, lifestyle and precaution measures (Foster et al., 2010).
UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP)
The organization’s main aim is to promote regulation of counselors and therapists.
Most of the big organizations offering training to counselors and therapists in UK are
members of this organization. The national register for psychotherapists is maintained by
UKCP. The organization is fully dedicated in ensuring that the cases of deaths due to cancer
new infections are kept as low as possible (Vander Hoorn et al., 2005).
Preventive Measures by the Government
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 9
The UK government has facilitated ease of access to drugs which are used to treat
cancer patients all over the country. This has been greatly achieved through distribution of
drugs like bisphosphonates and tamoxifen which reduce the risk of this chronic disease
especially to women. Fortunately, many cancer treatment centers have been established in
various locations enabling cancer patients to be able to access those services and facilities
very easily and cheaply also. The government has also taken a step ahead to subsidize the
cost of drugs such as bisphosphonates and tamoxifen especially in public hospitals. Before
the government had taken this important measure, it was very expensive to access such
services. Private hospitals and the associated manufacturing companies had hiked the cost so
high due to the increasing demand to the extent that only the rich could afford that (Forster et
al., 2010).
Also, United Kingdom government has done a lot to educate the citizens through
seminars and advertisement through social Medias. The related governmental health sectors
have funded the exercise to educate people on the best way to handle cancer patients,
precautions necessary and the importance of taking action immediately to treat the disease.
This has helped a lot in reducing the risk of death from the disease. People have gained
knowledge on what are the necessary requirements for cancer patients in terms of diet and
treatment. The government has spent a lot in funding researches on cancer treatment and also
in funding institutions which offer cancer treatment studies. Also, modern equipments have
been installed in various public hospitals (Ezzati et al., 2005).
Management Issues and Theories
There many ways of managing cancer disease. The UK government has participated a
lot to ensure that deaths from cancer infections have gone down significantly. There are
various methods and ways to treat cancer depending on doctor’s advice to patients. The
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 10
following practices help a lot in cancer management and theories like system, wagner,
distributive, leadership and equality.
Diet and lifestyle
Researches by various institutions show that, regular exercises reduce chances of
breast cancer and any other forms of cancer. Doing exercises help the body to burn excess or
unnecessary fats associated with cancer growth. Maintaining a healthy weight too reduce the
risk of cancer infection and it is advisable especially to women past menopause so as to
reduce the level of oestrogen in the body which is related to the increase in risk of cancer
infection (Ezzati et al., 2005).
Breastfeeding and Mastectomy
Researches show that, women who breastfeed have a lower risk of cancer infection.
This is associated with the fact that breastfeeding women have lower oestrogen level in their
bodies since they don’t ovulate regularly (Daniel et al., 2011). Mastectomy is basically
removing the breast through a surgery. It is used to treat cancer by removing much of the
breast tissues up to about 90% of the tissue. Even though this method of treatment has several
disadvantages like loss of body shape and so, researchers have come up with several
procedures to correct the same. For instance, Breast reconstruction is carried out where body
tissues from other body parts are used to replace those tissues removed from the breast during
mastectomy. An alternative to this is the breast prosthesis where an artificial breast is used to
maintain the body picture (Jenkims et al., 2002).
International Comparison
United Kingdom is among the highest countries in the world which are highly
affected by the breast cancer. The leading countries in the world are Denmark, Ireland, and
Australia among others. Denmark is leading with a statistical value of 326.1 per millions of
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 11
breast cancer victims. United Kingdom is ranked number 22 globally with approximately
266.9 per million patients.
From the above report on the care and practices on the breast cancer in the United
Kingdom, it is clear that the disease is among the dangerous and the second in the largest
number of deaths in women. It can then be concluded that, the government of the United
Kingdom should be recommended to ensure that the mentioned management on health care
and treatment of the breast in the country should be followed keenly. The key features are
also described, organizational resources, management issues and theories on the breast
cancer. This is clear that the disease should be prevented using the preventive measure and in
case of any patient the required guidelines should be followed. All polies, practices and
guidelines in this report should be followed up in treatment of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Health Care and Management Practices 12
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