Running head: Business 1
Training and Development
Student’s name
Professors’ name
Course title
Business 2
Performance is a perfect indicator of the state of a business. In a system that is so
competitive, retaining the right people would help the business to grow. But hiring the best talent
out there takes a lot of money and time hence employers have resolved to a less costly method of
training tits own so as to develop the right attitude towards business and grow the much needed
skills for growth. Employee training programs aim at improving employee performance by
helping him/her gain the required level of knowledge and expertise to perform his/ her job in a
more effective and productive way. But before the training is conducted, a Training Need
Analysis (TNA) is carried out to determine if there is need for the training to be carried out or
not based on several factors such as employees competence and cost of training. Industrial
Organization I-O psychologists whose role is to increase the capacity of the individual as well as
the organization of the value of high resilience in the workplace for this case.
Training Need Analysis
Training need analysis is conducted in a systematic manner to determine whether or not
there should be training. It takes into consideration the needs of business, competencies of
employees, methods of training, and cost of training and the effectiveness of the training. It is an
evaluation of the gap that exists in knowledge, skills and attitudes among employees in an
organization. A poorly designed TNA can lead to conducting training that trains the wrong
group(s) of people, the wrong competence and utilizes the wrong training method thus eating to
the time and resources that would have been used for other purposes.
Several methodology exist that can be used in obtaining information that reflects on the
needs of employees that require to be addressed e.g. Interviews of employees and managers or
supervisors, employee performance appraisal data, observation, outside assessment centers and
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other workplace data analysis. For this case, an employee appraisal form was administered to
each employee complemented with what the employer’s observe. The Training Need Analysis,
was meant to establish the most pressing needs and ranking them to establish which of them had
the most adverse effect on both the employees and the organizational objectives. Employees play
an indispensible role in the organization and how they perform will translate to the meeting of
organizational objectives at all times. In this needs analysis, there were three major deficiencies
observed, and these were employees’ poor ability in self-expression, lack of resilience and poor
communication of information from one rank to the other.
Issues Raised
Impact on Organizational
Objective and Outcome
Lack of resilience
Negative impact towards
High Adverse Impact
Poor self-expression by the
Inhibited needs of the employees
High Adverse Impact
Poor communication
Poor flow of information within the
organization though minimally
Median Adverse Impact
An industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologist job is to create avenues through which
individual resilience and better self-expression can be raised (Landy & Conte, 2016) e.g. via
individual training. Changes are a vital part of the work environment and acknowledging these
changes is time and again seen as a starting point for achieving individual resilience. Senge et al.
(2006) state that at the beginning of a change process, there may be resistance however when the
benefits start showing people slowly accept it and even further implement it. Preparation and
communication with the staff within the organization during the change process. Also the ability
Business 4
to raise complaints and express views about the changes is a key step in promoting easier
adjustment to changes and active participation in organizational change. Communicating and
notifying people of what is happening before the change is introduced reduces uncertainty and
resistance from the staff (Bierema, 2014). It is through this that the implementation and
maintenance of change is assured throughout all the phases of organization change development.
According to Luthans (2012), the foundation of learning about this subject is to promote positive
contribution of the individual to the company at all times.
Training Objectives
The established training, targets to improve attitudes that are meant to increase resilience
and promote better self-expression within the same organizational setting.
Training Program
The workable training program can be used by organizations to learn and promote
positive resilience of the staff through the facilitation of an industrial-organizational
psychologist. The training is scheduled to take place within two days, and there will be an
outside trainer namely the IO psychologist.
Training program
Day One: 4/12/2017
Time: 10:00am 1:00pm
I-O Psychologist
Training goals
To understand the meaning of resilience and poor self-expression
To identify the causes of non-resilience and poor self-expression
To identify the Effects of non-resilience and poor self-expression
Business 5
To identify the ways through which to boost resilience and better self-expression
What is resilience?
Individual resilience in the workplace is the ability for an individual to cope
and survive change successfully, risks, uncertainty therein quickly recover
and gain one’s original robustness in their work (Masten, 2011).
What interferes with/affects resilience and poor self-expression?
Internal factors including Internal locus control, healthy relationships,
emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, self-confidence, personality traits,
adaptive coping ability, problem-solving ability and self-esteem (Landy &
Conte, 2016).
External and environmental factors individual disruptions such as changing jobs
and conflict, team disruptions such as resource shortage, leadership that is
ineffective, continuous team reorganization, environmental and natural disasters,
terrorism, global financial crisis and pandemics (Baker & Schaufeli, 2008).
Day Two (5/12/2017)
Time: 10:00am 1:00pm and 3:00am 5:00pm
I-O Psychologist
Training goals
Explaining the effects of lack of resilience and poor self-expression.
What are the effects of low resilience among employees?
Increased stress
Missed work days
Negative emotional response including helplessness
Business 6
Decrease in productivity consequently affecting the entire
What are the effects of poor self-expression among employees?
Misconception and accumulation of rumors
Lack of confidence and reduced resilience
Lack of confidence and reflection of poor performance in work done.
Ways to build high resilience and self-expression in the workplace (Tugade &
Fredrickson, 2014)
I. Leaders role
Leaders can build trust and support
Leaders can enforce policies that promote well-being of staff
Leaders should act as appropriate role models for the staff to encourage
positive behavior
Leaders can limit the factors that encourage low resilience such as
unnecessary uncertainty.
II. Individual role
Establishment of positive stress management
Use of positive emotions
Change of thinking
Setting of small and realistic targets
Utilizing available resources to make the most of one’s potential
Having life balance
Being flexible and adaptive
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Benefits of high resilience and better self-express (Tugade & Fredrickson, 2014)
Increased job satisfaction
Positive contribution to self and organization
Positive coping despite challenges faced
Creation of a positive working climate
Increased job retention
There is need to promote high resilience in the workplace as the benefits go beyond
the individuals. The organization is also positively affected as the staff is able to
contribute positively to the organization
The Budget
Dissemination of Program Activities and Final Reporting
Copying and Printing
Assessment tools
Administration Support
Business 8
Bakker, A.B., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees
in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29, 147-154.
Bierema, L. (2014). Links to an external site.An introduction to organizational development. San
Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2016). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and
organizational psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Luthans, F. (2012). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of
Organizational Behaviour (23, 695-706.
Masten, A. (2011). Resilience Process in Development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227-228.
Senge, P., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., Roth, G., & Smith, B. (2006). The dance of change:
The challenges of sustaining momentum in learning organizations. New York, NY:
Tugade, M.M., & Fredrickson, B.L. (2014). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to
bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 86(2), 320-333.

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