According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV),
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) defines a mental condition that is characterized by
pervasive, assertive, imposing, and grandiose tendencies. Of the more than thirty million
Americans with different mental disorders, at least one percent gets diagnosed with cases of
This statistical prevalence can decrease or increase in various parts of the world
depending on causative and other factors. As a ‘Cluster B’ disorder, NPD gets categorized
alongside Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD), and
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD).
Behaviorally, those with this condition tend to
present persistent trends of obsession with self-importance, unrealistic dreams of
achievement, egotistic desires for special treatment, and lack of consideration for others.
The symptoms of NPD present obsessive and almost compulsive desires for
admiration. Apart from being overconfident, self-assured, and self-centred, individuals in this
state present manic or hypomanic tendencies of believing in their own superiority. They have
an exceedingly overrated idea of their potentials and abilities. With such inexistent abilities in
their mentalities, they proceed to seek constant attention and get everyone to like and
acknowledge them for the same.
Thus, they seek constant appreciation and praises from
other characters in the society for achievements not earned. In situations where the society
provides equal entitlements, such individuals believe that they have better belongingness and
deservingness in the society. They also envy and exploit others at their own expenses.
According to the DSM-IV, causes of NPD are not quite clear because they trace their
roots to early childhood while their effects commonly become pronounce in later adulthood.
. Videbeck, Sheila. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams &
Wilkins, 2012), 14.
. Pasqualetti, Maria. The Examination of the Role of Malignant Narcissistic Personality Disorder
as a Root of Serial Homicide (Chicago: Chicago School of Professional Psychology, 2011), 28.
. Zayn, Cynthia. Narcissistic Lovers: How to Cope, Recover and Move on (Far Hills, NJ: New
Horizon Press, 2012), 17.
. Gunderson, John. Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality Disorder: A Guide for
Professionals and Families (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publications, 2013), 71.