China Asia And Globalization | EssayIvy.com

China Asia and Globalization

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Professor
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China (Asia) and Globalization
Deng Xiaoping and the Modernization of China
As a member of the Chinese communist party for most of his life, Deng Xiaoping is
among the outstanding political figures in Chinese history especially on the current modern
state of China. Deng Xiaoping was an active participant in the Chinese revolution, the
formation of the people’s republic of China and foundations of socialist modernization that is
currently practiced in China (Foot 81). His participation in the country’s revolution and his
innovativeness and courage is highly regarded in China. Deng Xiaoping has one hand
enjoyed numerous victories while at the same time facing several tests as a major figure in
the Chinese revolution. Many a times during his career, he was subjected to undeserved
attacks due to his rigid position of his ideologies. However, his rigidness heightened the
levels of respect he enjoyed as a political leader and revolutionist in China. Ultimately he
eventually attained a powerful political position in the country which shaped the county's
history 
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Building on the relationship between China and the rest of the world was one of the
most important philosophies that Deng had. During his reign, the local political, social, and
economic systems were subjected to numerous changes. The main aspects of his reforms
were centered on four areas, namely military, science and technology, industry, and
agriculture (Foot 81). The introduction of changes in these areas was done by Deng with the
aim of promoting the formation of a modern socialist market economy in China. His
argument was that the levels of socialism that was practiced in China were basic and would
not fully support modernization and industrialization of the nation. His ultimate goal was to
introduce changes aimed at perfecting the concept of socialism to align it with the country’s
characteristics through seeking the truth in the existing facts (Terrill 13). This approach to
Marxism diminished the role of ideology in formulating economic decisions and policies. In
his approach to introducing changes in the country, he emphasized that socialism did not
imply sharing poverty and hence he was able to introduce the concept of market forces in the
country. Deng argued that developing a plan for market forces was not the main difference
between capitalism and socialism and hence to control economic activities it was imperative
to introduce market forces and planning (Lampton 31).
Towards the end of the Chinese revolution, which was mainly cultural in nature, the
economy of the country was grinding to a halt. There were numerous loses by the Chinese
republic to the outside world, the citizens of China were afraid of arrests, and there was a
looming threat of civil war. At this time is when Deng assumed the leadership of the country
with the objective of managing these challenges and putting the country to a path of
modernization. The most notable achievement by Deng was the promotion of economic
freedom in the country. His ability to convince the leadership and the masses that economic
freedom was central to economic development helped the country to establish policies that
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promoted economic development (Terrill 56). The eventual results were emergence of
collective and private business enterprises that pumped money into the country’s economy.
Furthermore, Deng was central to modernization of China through promoting more
contact between China and the outside world as well as promoting foreign trade. He
established diplomatic relationship with United States in 1979, and demanded support from
United States in promoting peace in the country. Additionally, he pleaded with business
people in America to invest their technology and resources in China (Lampton 42). All this
changes resulted to increased contact between China and the outside world in terms of
technology, business, and foreign investments, which ultimately contributed to the
modernization of the country (Foot 78). Modernization in the country was realized in four
folds. In terms of agriculture, Deng modernized farming methods in the country which
increased the country's agricultural productivity. Industries in the country were also increased
in number, and those that were existing were expanded and upgraded to support the needs of
a growing economy. Deng also promoted the growth and development of science and
technology in the country through encouraging building of the existing knowledge through
borrowing from the developed nations in the western world. In addition, Deng improved the
country's defense system through modernization of the military forces in the country as well
as encouraging the military to serve the civilians in the country. He also stopped massive
armament in the country as he advocated more investment in economic development rather
than military armament. Moreover, Deng introduced limited levels of privatization in the
country through elimination of the communes where land could now be leased to individual
farmers (Terrill 8). The end result was that farming activity became profitable and hence an
important economic activity in the country. 
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The reforms by Deng had positive as well as negative implications to the People's
Republic of China. From a positive perspective, the country witnessed an improved foreign
trade and relations; the people of China enjoyed improved living standards, and the economy
of the country grew enormously. However, there were several negative implications of his
approach to reforms. To be specific, the country experienced growing gaps between the poor
and the rich, the levels of corruption increased, there were heightened crime levels, and
political freedom was not part of his reform agenda which impaired political reforms in the
country (Foot 80).
In conclusion, the success realized by Deng in his reform agenda was founded by his
level of political flexibility with regard to the foundations of socialism. He believed that
socialism was founded on development and liberation of productive systems. Hence, he
argued that market economy and socialism are compatible. This positioned enabled him to
adopt economy management policies and efforts that were considered capitalist by his
predecessors. This position was the main tool that enabled Deng to introduce various social,
political, and economic changes that put China on the path to modernization. As much as
many socialists may view Deng as a capitalist, his assertions were well founded as he
promoted sharing of resources and at the same time market competition which is necessary
for promoting growth. Without the introduction of the concept of market forces and
competition in the market, it could have been impossible to create an economic environment
that would attract foreign investors and allow China to compete on a global scale.
Consequently, his approach to state capitalism was in conformity to what China needed to
realize the current modern levels of economic, political, and social development.
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Globalization: The role of United States and China
It is impossible to discuss the concept of globalization without mention the United
States and China and specifically the relationship between the two countries. Not to mention,
the two countries have dissimilar political ideologies that oppose one another, by the very
notion that they form the greatest partners in the global economic environment proves that
globalization is feasible and is happening. Both China and United States face numerous
challenges in the wake of globalization (Zoellick 5). As they attempt to settle the challenges,
they build on globalization. On the global scene, China and the united state have many
differences including issues of human rights and trade which are central aspects of
globalization. Ultimately, China and the United States represent two diverse perspectives of
globalization. Their current influential status implies that they determine the direction
globalization takes. As the two countries integrate their ideologies in the global arena so does
globalization take roots around the world.
The growing global strategic environment that demands cooperation between China
and United States as the main approach to managing the challenges and threats in the global
arena are the main attributes that build on globalization. As the two countries seek to achieve
convergence while maintaining national identities on critical issues such as political systems,
they develop an environment that cultivate globalization due to their powerful global
relations between them as well as their relations with most countries around the world
(Lampton 131). The two countries share several common interests in the global arena
resulting to a pressure that forces China and United States to build on their global systems
which ultimately results to a globalised world (Zoellick 5).
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The strategic interdependence between China and the United States has culminated to
globalization in various ways. The two countries economic power is increasingly dependent
on maintenance and building of their economic ties with other globalizing nations around the
world. Their economies also heavily depend on international stability and peace. Thus, the
two countries have invested heavily in not only building global economic ties but also
promoting global peace and stability (Foot 78). The eventual results of their efforts are
globalization of peace and economic initiatives. The fact that China and united states find
security, growth and prosperity of other nations around the world vital for their own
economic and security well-being, they actively peruse global issues related with
transnational threats that impair globalization. For instance, China and the United States have
several global initiatives aimed at managing spread of infectious illnesses, global
environmental degradation, massive refugee populations, religious extremism, regional
conflict, transnational crime, and terrorism (Lampton 111). All this challenges hinder the
spread of globalization. In this respect, China and the United States play a central role in
promoting globalization through elimination of stumbling blocks to globalization.
United States declaration of global war on terror is an illustration of their influential
position on globalization and the interaction between nations around the world. The concept
of global war against terror, which hinder globalization has been made possible by the United
States (Terrill 107). The threat to globalization by terrorism illustrates the extent of strategic
interdependence between the globalizing powers around the world. As the world became
globalized, the reach of terrorists with the potential of destroying globalization became
global. They have access to powerful weapons made accessible through globalization, they
rely heavily on the internet to communicate, and their targets are mainly areas that cause
global impact. Thus, the decision by the United States and its strategic partners to actively
pursue global terrorism positively influences globalization. After the world trade center was
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attacked on September 11, China and the United States have actively pursued terrorism with
positive results (Foot 83). The cooperation between the two global powers in the fight against
terrorism has ultimately culminated to globalization as their relationship resulted to shared
ideologies on global issues.
Other than the close links and the influential positions played by the two countries in
globalizing the world, they still are the source of most global technological innovative
developments that drive globalization (Zoellick 5). The internet, an invention by the United
States has a great influence on globalization. Mobile telephony is another important
innovation that promotes globalization, which is mainly controlled by China and the United
States. Most products in the global market are sourced from China. China is also home to
most global manufacturing companies that distribute products around the world. The ability
of China to support massive production of most industrial products have made globalization
feasible as any technological implement that promote increased relations among people
around the world is mass produced in China to support accessibility to the technology around
the world. Specifically, without China’s capacity to mass produce technological implements
such as computers and mobile phones, the technology could have been very expensive,
limited to developed nations and hence not influential in globalization. Thus, China and the
United States are major producers of industrial and technological products that build on
globalization
However, as much as the two countries play a central role in globalization of the
world, sustenance of their strategic cooperation is imperative in the globalization of the
world. Currently, China and the United States are strategic competitors due to the growing
influence of China on global matters. The prospects that China and United States can
effectively avoid issues that will threaten their global relationship and build on their strategic
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partnership are hard to envision. However, the extent of globalization realized by the two
countries has exposed them to strategic interdependence that diminishes the impact of
strategic completion through constraining aggressiveness towards each other in the wake of
growing push for economic and political dominance of the two nations on the global level.
Globalization has also exposed both China and the United States to similar strategic threats
that cannot be managed individually. Such threats demand bilateral cooperation between the
two nations which compels the two nations to seek approaches for building on their
relationship. This is evident in recent occurrences where China and the United States have
managed to deal with their differences while still working together on common interest
illustrates that this is strategically and politically possible. As much as United States prefers
to maintain its influential position in global affairs it has emphasized the need of China to
take more responsibility on global power affairs a clear indication that the two nations.
Consequently, sustaining a positive relationship between China and the United States could
be viewed as a win-win situation for the two powerful nations as well as the overall growth in
the global economy. Provided that statuesque exists, then the mutual economic relationship
between the two nations is sustainable. 
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Works Cited
Foot, Rosemary. "Chinese strategies in a UShegemonic global order: accommodating and
hedging." International affairs 82.1 (2006): 77-94. Print.
Lampton, David. Same Bed, Different Drams: Managing U.S. China Relations 1989-2000.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Print.
Terrill, Ross. The New Chinese Empire: And What it Means for the United States, New York:
Basic Books, 2003. Print.
Zoellick, Robert B. "Whither China: from membership to responsibility?." NBR ANALYSIS
16.4 (2005): 5. Print.

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