key ideologies: the tragic mulatto, the domineering matriarch, the incompetent domestic
servant, and the Jezebel or sex object (2).
The dual conceptualization between white and black womanhood had great disparities
because white women were accredited with the idealistic perception of womanhood that
involved fragility, chastity, domesticity, piety, cleanness, and passionless whereas black
women were accredited with all the negative characteristics of disgrace. These black women
were pictured and conceived as dirty, domineering, seductive, primitive, unwomanly,
physically strong, and lustful. These conceptualizations of womanhood placed the black
women outside the confines of virtue, femininity, delicacy, and respectability making them
ideal candidates for subjection and slavery (Mgadmi 2).
The right of whites to engage in the slave trade and own slaves was defended by
Reverend Verot of St. Augustine Church in Florida in 1861. In his sermon, he claimed that
the apostle Paul stated that to obtain salvation, the obedience of slaves to their masters was a
necessary prerequisite. Following this incident, it is not surprising that the Bible was used by
hundreds of Christian ministers and pastors to justify slavery during the Civil War. The white
Christians in the South did not only support slavery, but also the backbone of the
Confederacy consisted of the Southern Church that made several attempts to retain or keep
the African Americans who comprised of the slave population in absolute bondage.
According to Stout, there never would have been a Civil War if the church was pulled out of
the whole equation. His remarks in the Huffington Post revealed that he was certain that the
Southern clergy believed that they were not committing any sin by engaging themselves in
slavery (Kuruvilla 1-2).
Another proponent of slavery using religious terminologies was Thornwell who
defined slavery as a type of relationship between the slave and her/his master that was non-