Cigarette Smoking and Pulse Rate

Cigarette Smoking and Pulse Rate
Cigarette Smoking and Pulse Rate
Linear correlation analysis refers to the use of statistical methods to measure co-variation
significance of variables, direction, and causation. So, linear correction is an assessment of the
strength of the relationship between variables. Consequently, the conclusion that cigarette
smoking causes the pulse rate to increase is not valid. Furthermore, correlation is not an
implication of causality. A causal relationship implies that an increase in one variable
corresponds to an increase in the other variable (Pease & Bull, 2000). However, if there is a
significant linear correlation between the two variables, there is no way of knowing the variable
causing the change. Therefore, we can deduce that the number of cigarettes smoked, and pulse
rate is related, but we cannot conclude that causation is an implication of correlation and so,
correlation does not mean that the amount cigarettes smoked cause the pulse rate to increase. To
show causation further research is required (Green, 2012).
Also, the correlation between smoking cigarettes and increase in pulse rate may be
caused by a third-party factor, called a confounder (Green, 2012). Factors such as genetic
disposition may be one of the factors that influence the changes in pulse rate, and so, we cannot
convincingly say that cigarettes smoking causes an increase in pulse rate. An example of
correlation is the relationship between demand and supply, as demand causes an increase or
decrease effect in supply, consequently, there needs to be a cause and effect relationship for the
conclusion to be true.
In conclusion, the assessment of the linear correlation between smoking tobacco and
pulse rate is that they are related to one another, given that nicotine causes your arteries to
constrict and your heart to work harder, but is insufficient. A study like the use of a control group
should be set up to establish a significant outcome, and so far, that is not the case. Therefore, we
cannot conclude that cigarettes cause the pulse rate to increase.
Green, N. (2012). Correlation is not causation. Retrieved on December 7, 2017 from
Pease, C., Bull, J. (2000). Correlations are hard to interpret. Retrieved on December 7, 2017

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