CIVIL SOCIETY 2
The civil society refers to various socio-political non-governmental organizations that
champion the interests of ordinary citizens. Activism promotes or impedes reform or stasis in the
society with the goal of making improvements. There are various interpretations of the notion of
pluralism in disparate societal contexts, while activism is often viewed as a precursor to self-
determination, with the church failing to merit the definition of a civil society due to its
insignificant role in promoting political autonomy.
The contemporary civil society has transformed into a form of political modernity which
represents the epoch of civilization. Modernity implies that human beings have strived to
determine their own lives and relationships (Hirst, 2012). However, a point of contention arises
regarding the perception of pluralism by the civil society and the government. For instance, the
idea of democracy is perpetuated as self-determination and free polity by various states, as
opposed to the civil society that views the same as the autonomy in handling relations and
making decisions that affect their daily lives. Civil societiesare referred to as groups that should
exert ideological pressure on the government.
Various authors have conflicting opinions about the role of religion in defining the course
of politics, democracy, and social relations. For example, Smith (2016) considers religious faith
as the fabric that holds the society together by providing a moral basis, thus playing an
insignificant role in normative purposes. Despite promoting the libertarian premise that humans
should be free to make decisions that affect their lives, the role of the church has been exclusive
to the social sphere, especially to issues that concern abortion, humanization, and religious
identity. It implies that the role of religion remains blurred in the contemporary context of a
polarized socio-political activism.