Co-Cultural Activities

Co-cultural Activities
Name of the Student
Name of the Institution
Co-Cultural Activities
Co-cultural activities are various activities which supplement and complement the
various cultural activities within a community or a country at large. These are activities intended
to enhance and to enable productivity of the cultural values. They are also meant to increasingly
and steadily make progress towards making the cultural activities more competent and of greater
values to the both the local people and the country at large just like any other important cultural
These co-cultural activities or customs also enables individuals of various
professionalism and various areas in which they are working to be able to integrate cultural
parameters into their evaluation and handling of various clients as they attend to their various
day to day activities. This is a very important role since there is increased awareness of the
cultural activities and it also shapes the perception of various individuals as far as the
understanding of the cultural activities is concerned.
In additional the co-cultural activities differ from one community to the other, from one
community to the other and as well as from one race to the other .The main objective is to
develop cultural competence society, country or race as the cast may be primary they are also
intended to provide services full of cultural response. This aspect also address how to create
cultural awareness and prescribes core completeness such as personal -knowledge and skill
development. It widely captures behaviors as skills and ideas for learning cultural competences
and also developing a positive attitude conducive for effective working environment with a very
diverse population.
Furthermore, it also provides well defined guidelines and procedural steps for offering
culturally responsive services and actions to the entire population based on race. This facilitates
appropriate provision of organizational strategies which encourages the enactment and full
implementation of these practices in order to achieve a very fruitful culturally responsive
practice. Co-cultural activities also provide a more general overview for each of the major racial
and ethnic components by providing clearly stated knowledge related to attitude, beliefs, customs
and also behavior and also more convenient overview of practice and research approaches and
Literature Review
Current researchers tend to focus on various differences and the various types of co-
cultures, nationality and ethnicity. They tend to explore the differences between the co-cultural
practices in different parts of the world based on various races in existence. Even though such
researchers always carry out limited research on the effect of co-cultural differences between the
races, co-cultural systems have been in use for a very long period of time mostly to study and
understand the interactions between cell populations and are necessary and is a basic requirement
to the population interaction study one would like to be involved in. At a very basic level it
primarily a cell set-up in order to allow two or more various populations to grow with a common
entity between them. The advantage of such a set-up is to allow studying of natural interaction
among the population s and also a good working plan in order to improve culture-based success
for a given race. Co-culture is a collection formed from the various beliefs or behaviors which
set it apart and make it a bit different from the culture in specific.
A co-culture basically is the explication and identification of the conversation activities
and practices of co-cultural groupings that are of great value and importance for understanding
how various persons interact and communicate. The main focus is to bring to light how various
populations in a cultural set up interact and converse when addressing the dominant group or
race. People choose various approaches such as working to do away with the stereotypes in order
to join the dominant race. All these take place in order to achieve a common goal which is to
create a connection with the dominant race. Co-culture also brings on board the element of
various cultures being together in the same geographical place.
The available co-cultural practices differ on a number of grounds. Even though these
parameters upon which the co-cultural practices differ from one race to the other are clearly
stated and distinct from one another but they are all linked in terms of their effects to the cell
behavior in the various co-culture. Furthermore the co-cultures can be distinct based on the
following areas:
Degree of likelihood among the various races, the emerging differences between races
and local environment, the volume or the size of the co-culture within a certain race and also the
time scale of the various co-cultural practices carried out by a certain race or population. There
also exist a remarkable trade-off between these methods, for example specialized distinctions
between the various cultures within a race have mostly been done to their success at the small
volume scale and with a minimal number of separate cultures taking place
One aspect of interaction that has not been adequately looked at so far emanates from the
many uses media such as the mass media. The use of media presents itself in various forms and
has a connection to the cultural niches. What one witnesses on the screens becomes a major part
of the co-present. Those who use similar media use it as a means of ascertaining their social
creation of reality. The various programs, and comedy arenas that they watch or attend to are
equally comparable to other means of socialization unless that the participation is active and the
content may be educative. In addition, after an event as taken place on television programs some
people tend to imitate them through role playing. These happenings are form part of their
memory since they are able to memorize, imitate and be part and parcel of their culture. They
work, in various approaches as a grouped memory that is being shared between various
individuals and the same individuals are always triggered to bring out such happenings in a
public set up and they become the emerging realities or occasions. One can ably confirm that
based on the television programs one subscribes forms the virtual memory and thereafter
becomes social markers collections.
Race is on of the most important identifier for many people, identification by race can
influence communication in different ways depending on the race one comes from and fully
subscribes to its beliefs and practices. People always communicate through a language that they
both understand, but because of the various languages which are mostly race based only allow
people from the same race to communicate and hence they can be identified with it. Furthermore,
apart from the verbal communication people can still communicate by way of written documents
or other signs and symptoms one would like use. All these hinder communications between
people whose belong to various races.
Similarly, gender is also co-cultural factor which also highlights the difference between
the races in terms of the co-cultural activities. Gender basically refers to male or female and
therefore it is a co-cultural group because men and women have and always subscribe to the
various and different cultural identities based on the socialization and biological differences.
Since each gender has its own unique way and means of socialization, this clearly establishes the
difference in co-cultural practices within the races. Furthermore it is a common knowledge that
the biological differences between the male and female genders without any doubt clearly spells
out the various differences in existence among the various races.
Likewise, another factor which brings forth a blatant difference between races is
religion. This is an act of belief and good practices within the word and there exist a number of
religion beliefs and customs from the racial perspective. Religion is one of the major co-cultural
practices for example United States has always reflected Judeo-Christian practices and values
this categorically.
For efficient and effective operation of any international business, it requires expatriates
to have a clear and deeper understanding of the various differences between co-cultural practices,
for example business capabilities, a group of expatriate professionals who are well equipped with
the skills, management of both foreign and local personnel, and co-cultural individuals take for
granted a good knowledge of co-cultural differences in existence. Herskovits (1995) defines and
clearly demonstrates that culture as the human made part of the environment. Co-cultural
practices entail both subjective and objective elements in existence. There are a number of
tangible aspects of co-culture, for example tools, roads, television programs, organization and
architecture, and other physical artifacts. The intangible aspects of co-culture include customs,
beliefs, norms, values, ideas and other meaningful recognizable symbols. Hofstede (1994)
describes co-culture as a group of mental programming of people. He further asserts and also
give a comparison between culture and the mental capability that clearly stipulates the way
interact, think and reason and moreover distinguishes people from other classifications and alters
people’s behavior. Co-culture is an interplay of differences and sameness since there is a
consistent pattern of differences and sameness between the various co-cultural practices. Close to
all co-cultures are interchangeably very similar and different from the racial point of view.
Regardless of the fact that human beings possess many commonalities and universals, a
classified group of people or societies have many differences. In a nutshell some co-cultures
entail complex practices as compared to others. Furthermore, a given number of co-cultures are
more individual based, while on the other hand others are more collectivist, they tend to include
many people. Some co-cultures subscribe to a number of norms, customs, rules, and constraints
on social behavior and others directly impose very few. Co-culture evolves within each and
every society to classify its people and to differentiate them from others. Initially it captures how
the members of the society or a given race live and carry out their day to day activities for
example, how they provide basic needs to themselves. In addition, it also explains how various
members of a society or race interact and behave with each other at an individual level and also
in public meetings with other groups.
In addition, co-cultural practices also define the customs beliefs and values of members
of a given race and how they view and understand the meaning of life (Salacuse, 2004). Cojocaru
(2011) states that all co-cultures of the various races, regardless of the many differences
encounter a number of common challenges and have a common set of features known as cultural
universals. The most casual way of perusing an introductory part textbook in co-cultural
anthropology leads to the unavoidable conclusion that there exist many societies with their own
unique cultures and diversities. The determination of how many different cultures in existence
today depends greatly on how one can define and understand the problem in place, a well-
structured definitional question should be put in place mostly there is no consensus between the
world’s anthropologists. The overall approximation of the racial co-cultural variation and
differences can be brought to light by considering that approximately eight hundred and fifty
different and distinct cultures are on the African continents (Cojocaru, 2011). Instead of always
being in count with the exact number of co-cultures in the various races in existence at any given
time, it is important to put emphasize and effort on the importance of their variability to mean a
remarkable number of differences among the co-cultures explains the degree of flexibility and
adaptability of humans and in relation to various animals in existence. This is because each
culture has incorporated various remedies to solve the universal human problems that affect all
The constant interdependence among states, business arena and individuals has
brought to light the significance of national co-cultures to the forefront. Co-culture greatly
affects how people think, communicate and relate to one another. Therefore, it is of great impact
on various aspects of a negotiation. It is worth noting that co-culture, ethnicity and nationality
are always different. Various Co-cultures within a nation can be different. For example, cultures
identified between China and America (Ndapwilapo, 2008). Kavum (2007) states that unlike
political, legal, and economic systems, co-culture has proven very difficult to point out and
analyze. Its impact on both local and international business is widely spread, deep and broad. Co-
culture affects a number of interpersonal exchanges and a list of chain operations such as the
design of service and product, marketing, and sales. Business owners must design products and
packaging with culture in mind, even regarding the brand of color. For example, while red is the
preferred color for Russians, it is the symbol of sad moments in many states in Sub Saharan
Africa. What is an appropriate gift for business owners also varies from one place to the other
around the world. While items such as pens are universally appropriate, others may be
considered inappropriate. Examples include cutting tools such as knives, which imply cutting off
the relationship or other negative implication, chrysanthemums, which are directly linked with
funerals, and handkerchiefs, which is a sign of sadness (Kavum, 2007)
Most companies intend to have their employees learn about their co- cultures and gain a
degree of co-cultural. For example, in In California’s Silicon Valley, where IT firms are engaged
and are concentrated Intel offers a conference to its staff on working effectively with India. The
conference aims at helping employees work more effectively and diligently with roughly
400,000 Indian nationals. A number of other Silicon Valley firms provide similar training.
Another computer firm, AMD, gets IT workers from India to its company in Texas for a month
for co-cultural training with U.S. employers. Workers role-play, assuming to be local Indians,
and take subjects like Indian political history, Indian movies, and the differences between
Hinduism and other Indian religions. Training includes lessons on assigning work (Routeman et
al., 2008).
Cojocaru (2011) suggests that multinational companies have the great importance of
working in and with different co-cultures to manufacture their products and services accessible
to a far wider community. The significance for reaching beyond the borders results into
commercial sense. When multinationals develop into or with other countries there may be a
conclusion that because everyone within the company is working for the same goals and to the
same values, they will communicate with one another, think and portray the world in the similar
way. When a number of co-cultures start working together, problems or difficulties arise that a
number of people within the same companies are not skilled or semi-skilled or totally not skilled
such an issue before or they lack enough experience to deal with effectively. This can simply be
because they’ve never had to deal with the issue before (Cojocaru, 2011). Language is always
the least difficult barrier to breach.
When we recognize that there may be language differences, we should have a greater
awareness of the potential for such problems. However, much more often than not it’s a
completely different way of viewing things and an inability, analyses or unwillingness, to view
what the other party is seeing that is likely causing the difficulties. Black, Mendenhall and
Oddou (1991) brought to light some three main skills areas that specialists need to pay more
attention in order to survive in a new co-culture: skills associated with maintenance of self, skills
relating to bringing forth connections with local nationals and skills that encourage a correct
view of the local environment and its social units. Berry, Kim and Boski (1988, p.63) explained
three strategies for adjusting with this continuous change process. Specialists can adjust
psychologically by adjusting their behavior to cope with the environment, or they can adjust by
changing the environment moving from one place to the other, or they can move to a friendlier
Effective handling of the co-cultural interface is a very critical source of a firm’s
competitive advantage among others. Managers need to develop not only empathy and tolerance
toward co-cultural differences, but also acquire a enough degree of factual know-how about the
beliefs and values of foreign counterparts’-cultural proficiency is paramount in many managerial
duties, including: manufacturing products and services; communicating and relating with foreign
business persons; screening and choosing foreign suppliers and other partners; discussing and
local and structuring international business ventures; interacting with current and potential
clients from within and abroad; preparing for overseas trade fairs, conferences and exhibitions;
preparing advertising and promotional documentations (Routamaa & Rautiainen, 2002).
Short notes
Co-cultural differences have the potential of affecting some of the workplace issues. For
example it has important impact on working together when local and foreign people cannot get
along well with one another. There is significance for having groups to signify one another for
good work relation to thrive. Co-culture has got an impact of a very long of employment
(Routamaa & Rautiainen, 2002). For instance, workers in some Asian countries enjoy a
paternalistic engagement with their managers and work for the very firm all their life time. The
expectations that come to place from such devoted engagements can bring problems dealings
with outside firms. Western managers work hard and motivate clients who expect they will
always retain the same job regardless of the quality and nature of their work. In some nations,
merit and performance is often not the primary grounds upon which employees are promoted. In
China and Japan, a person’s age is the most significant factor in promoting workers. When
Western firms evaluate their employees, such kind of employees using performance-based
measures, then their productivity is likely to have a problem (Routamaa & Rautiainen, 2002).
Some companies prefer to give authority to country employers, creating a decentralized
organizational set up. Others are classified by autocratic structures with power concentrated at
regional and the distinct headquarters. Firms are encouraged to be entrepreneurial or
bureaucratic. But how can they be in a position to get a bureaucratic supplier to be responsible
about demands for on time delivery and performance? This approach can reduce the flexibility
of company day to day activities if the union representatives do not allow change. In each
country, nationals have a unique capacity to cope with ambiguity. For instance, some managers
like exact and summarized instructions on work to be undertaken, whereas others give long and
incomplete instructions. If an employee is at peace working with minimum guidance or taking
well informed action, then the employee may have difficulty fitting into some co-cultures
(Routamaa & Hautala, 2008).
The concept of culture as a unit of knowledge used by all persons within a group can no
longer be maintained. Just like economic classifications transcend state borders in order to do
business, mass media transcends the very borders in order to carry out marketing of goods. What
was once a simple matter of explaining the mores of a tribal unit or a nation-state has become
into a number of cultural practices that play a vital role in the present worlds of numerous
consumers. How does one start to describe how this new form of cultural diffusion? How does
one begin to start the forces behind these infusions of cultural symbols? (Debord, 1995)? How
does one handle the spectacle of life (Baudrillard, 1975)? One could like this overflow of
information to a co-cultural flood over the old terrains and valleys of the nation-states. What
happens in this co-cultural flood is that some of the cultural practices remain and take hold on
the old co-cultural space and some of the co- cultural practices are faced out and deposited
elsewhere? Those co-cultural practices that remain are either accepted, changed, or re-invented.
Those that are accepted become part of the new practices. Those that are revised are taken to be a
part of the present and those that are re-invented are treated as emergent realities.
At some point, the present becomes a part of the old only to be reintroduced within the
new present practices as the new. It was argued initially at the investigation that Kuhn’s theory
of scientific revolutions only provides ground for the discussion of change within the co-cultural
fabric of a society. More emphasis has been placed on the period of crises where the social
creation of reality is questioned new potential paradigms emerging. It was argued that this locale
is different from the present but the present, the place where the past and the present meet each
other. It is where the present is carried in the habitus of the past. It is also where the future is
being created by means of latest levels of consciousness-raising and new re-presentations of the
artifacts of the past.
Alba, R., and Victor N. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream: Assimilation and
contemporary immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Bellah, R., Richard M., William S., Ann S., and Steven T., (1985). Habits of the heart:
Individualism and commitment in American life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Binder, A. (1993). Constructing racial rhetoric: Media depictions of harm in heavy metal and rap
music. American Sociological Review 58:753-67.
Bobo, L (2001). Race, interests, and beliefs about affirmative action: Unanswered questions and
new directions. In Color lines: Affirmative action, immigration and civil rights options
for America, ed.
Brubaker, R., Mara L., and Peter S. (2004). Ethnicity as cognition. Theory and Society 33:31-64.
Carter, P. (2005). Keeping’ it real: School success beyond black and white. University Press.
Cornell, S. (2000). That’s the story of our life. In Narrative and multiplicity in constructing
ethnic identities, ed. P. R. Spickard and W. J. Burroughs, 4153. Philadelphia: Temple
University Press.
Cornell, S., and Douglas H. (2007). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world.
2nd ed. Thousand Oaks.
Cowen, T. (2002). Creative destruction: How globalization is changing the world’s cultures.

Place new order. It's free, fast and safe

550 words

Our customers say

Customer Avatar
Jeff Curtis
USA, Student

"I'm fully satisfied with the essay I've just received. When I read it, I felt like it was exactly what I wanted to say, but couldn’t find the necessary words. Thank you!"

Customer Avatar
Ian McGregor
UK, Student

"I don’t know what I would do without your assistance! With your help, I met my deadline just in time and the work was very professional. I will be back in several days with another assignment!"

Customer Avatar
Shannon Williams
Canada, Student

"It was the perfect experience! I enjoyed working with my writer, he delivered my work on time and followed all the guidelines about the referencing and contents."

  • 5-paragraph Essay
  • Admission Essay
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Article Review
  • Assignment
  • Biography
  • Book/Movie Review
  • Business Plan
  • Case Study
  • Cause and Effect Essay
  • Classification Essay
  • Comparison Essay
  • Coursework
  • Creative Writing
  • Critical Thinking/Review
  • Deductive Essay
  • Definition Essay
  • Essay (Any Type)
  • Exploratory Essay
  • Expository Essay
  • Informal Essay
  • Literature Essay
  • Multiple Choice Question
  • Narrative Essay
  • Personal Essay
  • Persuasive Essay
  • Powerpoint Presentation
  • Reflective Writing
  • Research Essay
  • Response Essay
  • Scholarship Essay
  • Term Paper
We use cookies to provide you with the best possible experience. By using this website you are accepting the use of cookies mentioned in our Privacy Policy.