Criminal Justice 222

Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE 222 1
Criminal Justice 222
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Criminal Justice 222
Discuss some of the details that you should examine when investigating a death scene
Evidently, when a death is reported, and investigators arrive at the scene, there are
various details that they look out for with the aim of apprehending the culprits. First and
foremost, the crime scene instigation (CSI) team takes a picture of the scene before moving the
body. A sketch of the scene is drawn evaluating the possible stages or events that could have led
to the death. Comprehensive analysis of the body is done from the head, trunk, arms and the
legs. In this context, the investigators seek to identify the complexion of the deceased, flow
patterns, soles of feet, and looking under the body. At the same time, an examination and
description of the entrance and lock arrangements are done. In the event the body is retrieved
from a house, all rooms are described in detail and investigated thoroughly. Sketches of the
scene are made before moving or re-arranging the place (Techniques of Crime Scene
Investigation: Homicide Investigation, slide 11).
Markedly, other details that are examined include the stairs, passages and all the entries
to the scene. Besides, surrounding streets and yards in the vicinity of the death scene are
critically examined. Others include outer doors, windows, newspapers, mailboxes, lighting,
television and radio sets, kitchen, and any odors emanating from the house. Additionally,
contents of ashtrays if any should be examined. Drawers and compartments in study desks and
damages to the walls or ceilings are analyzed as well. In the event where the dead’s garments are
taken off, the CSI comb them for rape or physical assault evidence (Techniques of Crime Scene
Investigation: Homicide Investigation, slide 12). In cases where the body is completely
mutilated, the investigators examine clothing or other objects present at the scene for
Describe the postmortem process of rigor mortis
Notably, when conducting the postmortem process of rigor mortis, CSI analyze the
typical signs. For instance, they look for possible changes in the eyes as the cornea becomes dull
and a film is likely to appear over the eye. Apart from that, the biochemical changes in the body
muscles begin to stiffen. The signs begin to manifest between 2 to 6 hours after death has taken
place. First signs of rigor mortis become prevalent in the small muscles such as jaws and fingers
which are evident within 12 hours after death (Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation:
Homicide Investigation, slide 20).
Discuss some of the initial questions that should be answered as soon as possible during
death investigation?
When conducting crime scene investigations, several questions must be sought to be
answered at the crime scene. First, who is the dead person? This question seeks to understand the
identity of the deceased as a prelude to the investigations. Secondly, when did the death occur? It
seeks to identify the date when the death took place. It fundamentally assists when determining
the cause by informing methods to be used. Thirdly, where did the death take place or where was
the body retrieved? This essential question seeks to set precedence for investigations. In this
context, if the body was found in a house, the investigators comb the house for evidence. On the
contrary, if the body is found outside, investigators look for evidence in the vicinity of the death
scene. Finally, how did the death take place and by what means? In this regard, investigators
seek to identify if the death is caused by natural causes, homicide, accident, or suicide.
Discuss the differences in appearance between an entrance wound in a contact shot and an
entrance wound in a distance shot.
Bullets are some of the most common causes of deaths in most parts of the world. There
are two forms of gun wounds, close and distant, that are highly prevalent. Crime scene
investigators always look for the appearance of injuries to determine the range of the shooter. In
close shots, the gun muzzle is less than 18 inches from the victim body. However, in distant
ones, shooting is done at distances greater than 18 inches. Evidently, both close and distant bullet
wounds are different, and one can tell by mere observation. For instance, in close shots, the skin
of the dead is usually burnt with signs of bruising, blackening, and tattooing of areas around the
wound. Notably, the palms of the deceased are highly resistance to powder tattooing. Apart from
that, the blackening around the wound can be wiped by using a wet cloth. However, the tattooing
cannot be wiped off from the skin. On the contrary, distant injuries are irregular and have a
stellate appearance. In fact, an abrasion ring is absent, and the wound looks more like an exit.
The blackening and tattooing looks are lacking with the skin around it showing several zones
(Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation: Homicide Investigation, slide 30).
Discuss some of the most common ways that computer evidence is destroyed.
Fundamentally, digital evidence has dramatically revolutionized the field of crime
investigations. In the recent times, it has concluded high-profile cases that would not have been
resolved. There are several forms of digital evidence that is acceptable and admissible in a court
of law. They include child pornography, gambling, terrorism, fraud, trade secret theft, identity
theft, the crime of violence, and theft or destroying of intellectual property. There have numerous
cases of destruction of digital evidence that have been reported in the recent times. A
comprehensive analysis has revealed common ways in which evidence is destroyed. First and
foremost, an investigator handling a certain case may become impatient pushing him or her to
use methods that are not acceptable. For instance, the agent may look at the data using the
primary startup and access procedures that may destroy the information. Notably, specific
procedures that are done with precision must be followed when retrieving digital information
(Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation: Digital Evidence, 6). Therefore, when an investigator
skips any of the steps, data is destroyed and in most cases irretrievable.
Secondly, digital evidence may be destroyed when a non-expert uses software to start up
a device containing the information. Evidently, crime scene investigations utilize complicated
equipment and software that must be handled by a professional. In the event an investigator with
lack of know-how of they operate, chances of destroying the evidence is high. Thirdly, when a
device containing digital evidence is mishandled at the crime scene, the evidence is destroyed.
Notably, devices such as hard drives and back-ups of CCTV cameras may be vandalized further
destroying the data. Finally, unauthorized persons may interfere with evidence destroying it. For
instance, an individual involved in the death may want to destroy evidence to avoid being
caught. Numerous cases of such acts have been reported in various parts of the world where
murderers seek to destroy evidence.
Discuss some types of crimes associated with digital evidence
Essentially, digital evidence is used in investigating a number of crimes as previously
discussed. For instance, it helps in apprehending culprits in the event of identity theft. The crime
refers to the use of someone else’s identity in a manner seeking to gain a monetary advantage or
obtain other benefits using another person’s name. This activity leads to loss of money or dignity
of the victim. The person whose identity has been stolen suffers adversely especially in the event
he or she is held liable for the actions of the perpetrator. Apart from that, fraud is another crime
related to digital evidence. It is the criminal or wrongful deception aiming to cause a personal or
financial gain. Digital forensics plays a crucial role in apprehending criminals through the
process of identifying, collecting, preserving, and analyzing information from various media.
Finally, intellectual property theft is a crime associated with digital evidence (Techniques of
Crime Scene Investigation: Digital Evidence, slide 2). The crime involves robbing of people’s
ideas, creative expression, and inventions.
“Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation: Digital Evidence.” (n.d.). [PowerPoint slides].
“Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation: Homicide Investigation.” (n.d.). [PowerPoint slides].

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