CRIMINAL THEORIES 2
Human behaviour is complex, and people act in response to various factors such as
personality, peer group, neighbourhood, socioeconomic status and so forth. Therefore, it is
probably hard to single out a single cause why some people are criminal. Activities that may
be termed as illegal in a country may not be legal in another. Different types of crime have
their own discrete causes. Many theories try to explain the causes of crime.
The psychodynamic theory has roots in Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective.
Individuals personality, ego and super ego according to Freud interacts with the intermediate
environment drawing us to immediate gratification. This theory suggests that criminal
behaviour may result as a psychological maturity reflection, especially weak self-control in
some certain situations. Some of the major risk factors are said to below success in work or
school, disturbed relationships, impulsivity, weak superego equating with some little guilt,
early misconduct and antisocial attitudes, problems in relationships or families and much more.
Differential association theory bases upon contact with beliefs, values, attitudes and
rationalisations occurring through contact and exposure to pro and anti-criminal patterns. It has
been found out that social learning major part occurs in a relationship so as to contact with
others. Therefore, the peer relationships mostly dictate the criminality level that an individual
is likely to be involved with (Berzofsky, 2014). The criminal behaviour from this theory is seen
as a differential expression, reinforcement and punishment of non-criminal and criminal
alternative behaviour. The antisocial peers and antisocial attitudes are the interventions.
The social location theory argues that behaviour reflects where one is positioned in a
social system. The access to prestige, power and wealth are attained through anti and prosocial
means. For instance, poor, young and members of the disadvantaged ethnic group may conspire
to carry out some crime. Social location the main idea is that the criminal behaviours mirror
personal strain that may be connected to social disadvantage. Major risk factors in this model