Cultural Revolution In China | EssayIvy.com

Cultural Revolution in China

1
Student’s Name
Cultural Revolution in China
Introduction
The Chinese Cultural Revolution, also known as the Great Proletarian Culture Revolution
started in the year 1966. Many historians refer this Revolution as a large catastrophe in the
human history since it caused inestimable lose of properties and human lives in China. The
Cultural Revolution is said to have lasted for more than ten years and its dust is gradually settling
even in the present days, more than four decades after its end. It is indisputable that both direct
and indirect effects of these gave calamity are still affecting the people of China as they reform
and forge their future social developments.
Cultural Revolution was as a result of a ten year old movement that was established with
an aim of strengthening Maoism among the Chinese through eliminating feudalistic, capitalist
and other cultural elements that compromised Maoism
1
. This movement was to achieve this by
conducting ideological campaigns that would revive revolutionary spirit among the Chinese and
purge the county of “impure” elements.
1
Lu Xiuyuan, “A Step Toward Understanding Popular Violence in China's Cultural Revolution,
Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 533-563.
The formation of this movement lead to an internal power struggling quickly and spilled
over into all facets of the society. This ushered in outbreak of violence that led to destruction of
properties of inestimable cost. A lot of Chinese lost their lives as young Chinese people were
forced into countryside to learn the hard life that peasants were undergoing. During the Mao’s
rule, millions of the Chinese people were persecuted.
Causes of the Cultural Revolution
Lu Xiuyuan (1994) writes that the main reason why Mao made a decision of allowing
China to undergo Cultural Revolution was because the CCP and the government of Chin at that
time were becoming too remote from the Chinese people whom they were ruling. Lu Xiuyuan
furthers that Mao used to openly criticize experts and specialists who were involving themselves
with the China’s economy. Moa is also described to have come out strongly and condemned the
preference that was being given to children of members of the party hierarchy and those that
came from urban centers to those who came from rural areas and from poor backgrounds. Mao is
said to have opposed this preferences since they were forming the basis for the formation of the
privileged middle class China
2
.
2
Lu Xiuyuan, “A Step Toward Understanding Popular Violence in China's Cultural Revolution,
Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 533-563.
Stuart R. Schram (1986) asserts that main reason why Mao was criticizing Liu and Deng
policies that were encouraging the development of intellectuals such as technologists and
scientists who would in turn be so influential in the economy and the society of China was
simple, he just wanted to regain his position in the Party so that he would have enough power to
undermine the positions which Deng and Liu held. Stuart R. Schram furthers that Mao was doing
this to appeal the Chinese people more that the leaders of the Party so that he would regain the
influence that he had lost since 1959 so that he would have enough support d authority to greatly
influence policies and the culture of the masses of the China people
3
. Baoxu Zhao, a political
analyst asserts that undermining the positions and policies of Deng and Liu were the most
effective avenues through which Mao would use to win the mass of the Chinese people
In his attempts to undermine Liu and Deng’s positions, Mao expressed his views that
China should have a permanent revolution. He also made accusations against Liu and Deng that
they were the snitches who were betraying the revolution from within. Mao’s declaration lead to
continuous challenging of the authority and no particular class or group was allowed to fully take
control of the Revolution.
Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife used to indoctrinate Mao with ideologies that made him to push
further, more than what he had anticipated. Qing’s advice to Mao threatened to completely
destroy the Chinese traditional culture and replace it with pure socialist ideas.
3
Stuart R. Schram, “The Limits of Cataclysmic Change: Reflections on the Place of the "Great
Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in the Political Development of the People's Republic of China,
The China Quarterly, No. 108 (Dec., 1986), pp. 613-624.
These consequentially led to everything “new’ being accepted and embraced without any form of
criticism as attacks were launched on anything that was “old”.
Mao also was aiming to equalize mental and physical labor. Stuart R. Schram affirms that
one of the reasons why Mao allowed Cultural Revolution was to ensure that both mental and
physical labors were equally rewarded for their contribution in production process in various
industries in which they worked in. Even so, Schram furthers that this motive seemed to be
forgotten in the devastation that took place in China between 1966 and 1968
4
.
Benjamin Carlson affirms that Mao majorly employed the tactic that involved the use of
the Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution. The Red Guards which was established in 1966
comprised students and young adults who went all or China to advocate for Mao’s thoughts
through putting up posters which were published in a ‘Red Book”. In the rally that was held on
18
th
August, 1966, in the Tiananmen Square, ‘Chairman Mao’ was urged to launch a series of
attacks on the four ‘olds’ by one million Red Guards who attended it. The four ‘olds’ included;
old customs, old habits, old thoughts and old culture.
Following the incitement the Mao gave the Red Guard at the rally, the Red Guards
launched attacks against doctors, civil servants, teachers, intellectuals and scientist and anybody
who represented authority. The people who were captured by the Red Guards were tied up before
being forced to recite Mao’s Book.
4
Stuart R. Schram, “The Limits of Cataclysmic Change: Reflections on the Place of the "Great
Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in the Political Development of the People's Republic of China,
The China Quarterly, No. 108 (Dec., 1986), pp. 613-624.
They were then forced to accept being guilt and required to seek for forgiveness from Mao. Their
first confession where not accepted. The victims were forced to assume the ‘aeroplane’ position
and ask for forgiveness.
The Red Guard also took over radio and television networks. In order to deal with any
opposition in any part of China, the Red Guards also took control of public transport systems
through which they would use to move freely in China. It became impossible for even those
opposing the Cultural Revolution to air their view since the Red Guards prevented any news
from being broadcasted that would attack Cultural Revolution. Red Guards’ attacks involved
brutality of the highest order even to helpless women and children who fail victims of sexual
abuse from the members of the Red Guards
5
.
Later on, both President Lie and HIS Vice President Deng were captured by the Red
Guards and dismissed. The Vice President Deng was publically humiliated in front of over three
thousand members of the Red Guards. As if that was not enough, the members of the Red
Guards threw the Vice President’s son from a window and as a result, he broke his spine.
President Liu was arrested by the members of the Red Guards and imprisoned. In the year 1973,
he died while in prison.
5
Lu Xiuyuan, “A Step Toward Understanding Popular Violence in China's Cultural Revolution,
Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 533-563.
Consequences of Cultural Revolution
At the time the Cultural Revolution was taking place, Mao was the leader of the
Communist Party. He took that opportunity and implement policy OF Down to the Countryside
Movement. This policy ensured that educated youths moved to their rural homes where they
could live and learn.
In the year 1966, many schools were closed down as students started joining the Red
Guards who were to implement the thoughts of ‘Chairman Mao’s’ thoughts during the Cultural
Revolution Era in China.
Cultural Revolution led to many healthcare persons being deployed into countryside
where they trained farmers on medical practices and build healthcare facilities in those rural
areas. This not only improved the life in rural areas, but it also helped in increasing life
expectancy of the farmers
6
.
Schools and other educational centers where build in rural areas during the Cultural
Revolution era hence improving the education standards in those rural areas as children of the
farmers were being taught about new farming techniques. In turn, this led to improved
agricultural productivity in rural areas.
6
Lu Xiuyuan, “A Step Toward Understanding Popular Violence in China's Cultural Revolution,
Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 533-563.
Cultural Revolution facilitates the education of many villagers who with time started
raising up and challenging village officials in mass meeting, and public debates. Farmers also
started raising up and criticizing the government for their faults, particularly during the Great
Leap Forward years.
Towards the end of the Cultural Revolution Era, ordinary farmers were given more
control in the management of the affairs pertaining agricultural productivity
9
. Many committees
were formed that democratically elected their leaders who would lead them in production plans
hence China witnessed improved economic activities and higher economic growth rate.
Conclusion
Even though Cultural Revolution in China resulted to loss of inestimable properties and
lives, it brought positive effects that the Chinese people are enjoying up to now. Were it not for
the Cultural Revolution, many rural areas in China would still be abandoned as many people
would opt to stay in urban centers.
Bibliography
Stuart R. Schram, “The Limits of Cataclysmic Change: Reflections on the Place of the "Great
Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in the Political Development of the People's Republic of China,
The China Quarterly, No. 108 (Dec., 1986), pp. 613-624.
Lu Xiuyuan, “A Step Toward Understanding Popular Violence in China's Cultural Revolution,
Pacific Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 533-563.

Place new order. It's free, fast and safe

-+
550 words

Our customers say

Customer Avatar
Jeff Curtis
USA, Student

"I'm fully satisfied with the essay I've just received. When I read it, I felt like it was exactly what I wanted to say, but couldn’t find the necessary words. Thank you!"

Customer Avatar
Ian McGregor
UK, Student

"I don’t know what I would do without your assistance! With your help, I met my deadline just in time and the work was very professional. I will be back in several days with another assignment!"

Customer Avatar
Shannon Williams
Canada, Student

"It was the perfect experience! I enjoyed working with my writer, he delivered my work on time and followed all the guidelines about the referencing and contents."

  • 5-paragraph Essay
  • Admission Essay
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Article Review
  • Assignment
  • Biography
  • Book/Movie Review
  • Business Plan
  • Case Study
  • Cause and Effect Essay
  • Classification Essay
  • Comparison Essay
  • Coursework
  • Creative Writing
  • Critical Thinking/Review
  • Deductive Essay
  • Definition Essay
  • Essay (Any Type)
  • Exploratory Essay
  • Expository Essay
  • Informal Essay
  • Literature Essay
  • Multiple Choice Question
  • Narrative Essay
  • Personal Essay
  • Persuasive Essay
  • Powerpoint Presentation
  • Reflective Writing
  • Research Essay
  • Response Essay
  • Scholarship Essay
  • Term Paper
We use cookies to provide you with the best possible experience. By using this website you are accepting the use of cookies mentioned in our Privacy Policy.