These consequentially led to everything “new’ being accepted and embraced without any form of
criticism as attacks were launched on anything that was “old”.
Mao also was aiming to equalize mental and physical labor. Stuart R. Schram affirms that
one of the reasons why Mao allowed Cultural Revolution was to ensure that both mental and
physical labors were equally rewarded for their contribution in production process in various
industries in which they worked in. Even so, Schram furthers that this motive seemed to be
forgotten in the devastation that took place in China between 1966 and 1968
Benjamin Carlson affirms that Mao majorly employed the tactic that involved the use of
the Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution. The Red Guards which was established in 1966
comprised students and young adults who went all or China to advocate for Mao’s thoughts
through putting up posters which were published in a ‘Red Book”. In the rally that was held on
August, 1966, in the Tiananmen Square, ‘Chairman Mao’ was urged to launch a series of
attacks on the four ‘olds’ by one million Red Guards who attended it. The four ‘olds’ included;
old customs, old habits, old thoughts and old culture.
Following the incitement the Mao gave the Red Guard at the rally, the Red Guards
launched attacks against doctors, civil servants, teachers, intellectuals and scientist and anybody
who represented authority. The people who were captured by the Red Guards were tied up before
being forced to recite Mao’s Book.
Stuart R. Schram, “The Limits of Cataclysmic Change: Reflections on the Place of the "Great
Proletarian Cultural Revolution" in the Political Development of the People's Republic of China,
The China Quarterly, No. 108 (Dec., 1986), pp. 613-624.