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Cyber crime research

Running Head: TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 1
Today’s cybercriminal trends.
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Running Head: TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 2
Today’s cybercriminal trends.
Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 3
Abstract ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Literature review ....................................................................................................................................... 5
Findings. ................................................................................................................................................... 7
1. Ransomware. ................................................................................................................................. 7
1. Cyberterrorism ............................................................................................................................ 10
2. Fraud and financial crimes .......................................................................................................... 12
3. Espionage .................................................................................................................................... 14
References ................................................................................................................................................... 18
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 3
Introduction
Information technology is the most complicated and of course the quickest growing
industry in the world. The past three decades have witnessed the fastest advancement in use of
computers with more computer functionality discovered by scientists. Besides, the world is
embracing the change in information technology at a very likely rate and hence the high
acceptance rate of the informational innovation by the brilliant minds of the 21
st
century
(Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H, 2014). The very recent changes in information technology are for the
past not more than one year is the hybrid cloud; a derivative of cloud computing, a concept
implemented in IT sector in the recent history changing the handling of information drastically.
Additionally, the open stack technology has emerged recently with technologists depicting their
relentless pace in changing many things in computing world and setting the pace for future
discoveries. The industry is changing faster to catch up with the always increasing demand for
innovations to implement the user needs in the market. Research has shown that a more
significant percentage of the population; especially the youth are never satisfied with one
particular innovation and therefore check on a daily basis to see and use a new device (Akhgar,
B., & Arabnia, H, 2014).
There are more advantages than disadvantages in the current IT trends that fascinate the
world’s IT platform users. However, the few drawbacks of innovation in technology have
devastating consequence. The main disadvantage emanating from the rapid IT advancements is
cybercrime (Bendovschi, 2015). Cybercrime refers to any activity involving the use of
technological know-how or machinery to obtain some information or perform an action that
violates the privacy or other rights of other IT platform user. The main cybercrime acts reported
in the information technology sector include among many others; piracy, unethical hacking,
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 4
monetary transaction frauds, advance fee fraud, identity theft and cyberbullying (Kshetri N. ,
2010). Besides, spamming emails are sent to millions of internet users daily with malicious intent
from the senders. The recent years have witnessed increased cases of phishing with many people
reportedly scammed by spammers. Information warfare has been used on different occasions
backed by the reliable IT tool, data mining (Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J, 2014).
The major trends. Cybercrime has far-reaching effects including with many cases of espionage,
theft of personal information and many other privacy-threatening acts.
Abstract
Inquiry into the cybercriminal cases has revealed that the world is experienced in the
most sophisticated unethical computer wars than ever. The advancement in technology has breed
an elite team of computer gurus able to manipulate the computer’s capability and to bully other
technology network and system users. There has been advanced hacking, industrial espionage,
and phishing among many other cases of computer-related crimes cases that has exposed the
vulnerability of the world’s telecommunication networks. Some economies, financial
institutions, business organizations have crumbled at the hands of the anonymous
cybercriminals. Countries have invested millions of dollars to developed advanced security
networks over the years in vain. The security infrastructures become vulnerable within few years
exposing the confidential countries’ information to the malicious hackers and undercover agents.
Hacking changing momentarily with the advancement in technology hence outpacing the
upgrades companies and nations can do to safeguard their data security systems. Besides,
development of the advanced data security systems is costly and therefore time, and again they
become obsolete and easy to vandalize by the always trying cybercriminals.
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 5
Literature review
The 21
st
century has reported most cases of cybersecurity threats than all the other
computing years combined. The latter is a shocking revelation than any technological device user
must worry about. Cybercriminals have become “smarter, faster and hardly traceable” in crime
execution, (Mateen, A., & Abbas, Q, 2016). Since the 1980’s hacking was not as commercialized
as it is currently with individuals and grouped cybercriminals targeting institutions, banks,
governments and even key personalities to tap their data(Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P.,
Alazab, M., Bouhours, B., & Chon, S, 2014). Hackers have managed to steal personal data
belonging to organizations and “sell it to competitor institutions(Yar, 2013). The latter defines
the fact that cybercrime is on the increase with an analytical curve showing that cybercrime will
be overwhelming by 2050(Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J, 2014). Breaches have
increased in the recent past and are more complex, almost insolvable cases(Hassan, A. B.,
Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J., 2012). Detectives in developed countries have come across many
cases of cybercrime happenings since 2000 than before. Organized internet crime has paralyzed
service delivery in some countries as the number of computer guru’s increase exponentially
globally. Computer crimes nowadays are committed to service to some interested parties as they
negatively impact others computer users. The latter is a trending offense whereby companies hire
hackers to break into the information database of other companies and get away with classified
information about the company.
Banking Trojans have been used to paralyze the operations of financial institutions hence
increasing the operational costs of the banks tremendously. Trojans steal confidential and
personal information of the” customers and the managerial staff of banks” (Hassan, A. B., Lass,
F. D., & Makinde, J., 2012). The latter has led to the endless loss of money and never-ending
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 6
risks of losing money anonymously. Ransomware cases have been reported in several countries;
more than 100 for that matter, in less than one year, 2017. Ransomware gain access into the
computer systems of individuals and financial systems and demand an otherwise huge sum of
money from the affected institutions lest they damage the company’s data(Broadhurst, R.,
Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., Bouhours, B., & Chon, S, 2014). Cybercrimes cases have increased
notably in the recent past bearing to the fact that some innovations in the world have favored
loop way hence the cybercrimes are almost undetectable and irreversible. For instance, the
cryptocurrency boom has favored the worldwide ransomware attack success in 2017. Hackers
demanded payment to be made in the form of bitcoin, an untraceable transition hence cybercrime
is turning on a new page; unimaginably complex for the current technology to counter
efficiently (Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H, 2014). Data remains are a very crucial asset to hackers.
Unethical hackers have gained access to private computers and stolen personal data. Personal
data can be used against an individual; including posting it to social media to expose the victim
(Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H, 2014). Besides, cybercriminals demand money from cybercriminal
victims whose data has been stolen lest they make the otherwise private data public. Technology
development is one of the most exciting things that has ever happened in the history of human
civilization. The launch of the contactless payment methods like use of NFC in smartphones and
other smart devices is very exciting. Regardless of the otherwise advanced methods of financial
transactions, fraud in the recent past is threatening the of the cashless payments are there have
been cases of manipulation of the NFC cards leading to loss of money by the victims (Taylor, R.
W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J, 2014).
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 7
Findings.
Today’s cybercrime crime cases have become more complicated with the increasing
complexity of technological advancements. Both local and international banks in many countries
of the world have reported in Billions of dollars to cybercrime. Financial theft has become more
complicated with very little success of taming it. The world is at stake; what’s the lasting and
practical solution to the cybercriminal cases. Cyber ware complicates the unethical cross-border
use of computers in sophisticated operations by people with ill intent on others is a crime
reported on a daily basis in the world (Yar, 2013). The world’s economy is staggering in the
hands of the cybercriminals. Losses accumulating to more 400 billion dollars are reported yearly
from different sectors of the economy including the banking sector, online shopping loses,
personal accounts hacking and other indirect costs incurred by people who unluckily fall in the
hands of the merciless cybercriminals. A more specific example is the US whereby the Microsoft
reports a loss of more than $1.5 billion from personal credit card and other banking-related cases
in 2016 (Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., Bouhours, B., & Chon, S, 2014). Predictive
research shows that the world may consequently lose more than $2.1 trillion cybercrime by
2021; raising the eyebrows of many internet users; who’s the next victim in the cybercrime
cases. The main cybercrimes that are trending faster on a statistical analyses include
Cyberterrorism, fraud, and financial crimes, cyberwarfare, ransomware among other computer
crime related cases.
1. Ransomware.
Ransomware is a type of hacking in which the hacker uses malicious software to deny an
owner of a computer system the access to a computer until a given amount of money is paid.
Ransomware has the capability to encrypt files in a remote computer system and can only
decrypt the files when the intended amount is paid to the hacker. Besides, ransomware can steal
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 8
the information in an individual’s computer and sent it to the developers’ workstation. Accessing
someone’s information without their consent is by far illegal and a very serious crime under any
formally established law. A ransomware works by cryptovirology techniques whereby it distorts
the normal format of any electronic material until some amount is paid to decode the coded
format of the files (Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J., 2012). In the recent times; more
specifically in the past decade, cybercrimes have become more complex than the revealers can
see and define in a better-understood language. The birth and the growth of the virtual mode of
payment; cryptocurrencies have made the solution of ransomware a nightmare to companies,
individuals and everyone who can understand what cyber criminology is. The bitcoin is the most
used cryptocurrency in the dark webs and other sites where hackers dominate every corner of in
hunt for the soft targets to steal a personal data, money and general malicious activities (Kshetri
N. , 2005).
The recent trends in ransomware usage have left many wondering about the global
security of anyone who uses the internet. Ransomware is one of the newest trends in
cybercriminal cases (Mateen, A., & Abbas, Q, 2016). However, ransomware has become
extremely lethal to everyone around the globe. The latter has many cases that have led to
multimillion losses to companies can corporations. The recent example of the use of ransomware
in cybercriminal activity is the WannaCry, a cybercrime that threatened utterly the use of
computer systems in any technological applications (Bendovschi, 2015). The WannaCry struck
the world in 2017, affecting many multinational companies and different countries across Asia,
Russia, Europe and other nations widespread in different continents. Ukraine, Taiwan, India, and
Russia topped the list of the most stricken countries by the fatal ransomware. The cybercrime
affected more than 150 countries, and reportedly the worst ransomware attack in the world’s
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS. 9
history. The latter marked the most significant cybercrime affecting the most population at a go;
more than 200000 computer globally (Mateen, A., & Abbas, Q, 2016). The ransomware spread
like wildfire hence the global concern for the safety of the world’s telecommunication system
under the treats of cybercriminals. The ransomware spread through thousands of computers
without detection and without prompting any user on anything.
NotPetya is another case of ransomware used in recent past to terrorize millions of
computer users (Yar, 2013). The NotPetya broke the internet on 27
th
June 2017, making many
countries regret the technological advancements for their grievances. The NotPetya was first
reported in countries like Ukraine and Netherlands in some fewer cases. The latter however
spread within a short time to countries in Europe; with Spain and Britain targeted. The
ransomware silenced several British advertising media as they couldn’t pay the ransom
demanded in an electronic form by the malicious software. The ransomware encrypted the
master record boot in computers affecting many organization across the world (Taylor, R. W.,
Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J, 2014). The NOtPetya as any other cyber warfare used an
EternalBlue technical hitch in windows to access the computers of many computer users and
demanding the Bitcoins of ransom. The NOtPetya, without a prompt installed in a PC as a
payload and halted successful bootup process of the windows until payment was paid. Besides,
the NOtPetya after its installation encrypted the file system from NTFS into another format that
can’t be opened unless payment for the latter is dine (Smith, R., Grabosky, P., & Urbas, G.,
2004).
There has been random and often storms of ransomware time and again. Lately,
ransomware by the name “Badrabbit” was also spreading at a fast at an alarming rate. Kaspersky
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
10
lab reported may report of the malicious software targeting mainly Ukraine and Russian business
and governmental computer systems. Some media organization in Russia including Fontanka.ru
was affected by the ransomware. Besides, other organizations in the country suffered the same
consequences; Interfax and the Kiev’s metro system were struck too alongside an airport in
Odessa. Many other countries suffered under the threat of the “Badrabbit” upon its spread. The
US reported some cases of attack by the ransomware. The following range to Poland and South
Korea affecting businesses, banking, media and other operations that use advanced computer
systems. Evidently, ransomware is on the increase; at a higher rate than never before (Mateen,
A., & Abbas, Q, 2016). There are reported cases of ransomware including the Cerber, the Locky,
Osiris, WYSIWYE, LEAKERLOCK, REYPTSON, and the UNKNOWN. The world is at stake,
the alarming rate of ransomware dramatically threatens the world’s economies at large.
1. Cyberterrorism
Trends in the current world history also include cyberterrorism. Since the dawning of
2000, there has been a relentlessly rising case of cyberterrorism. Cyberterrorism is an act of
creating public tension or fear by use of a politically oriented computer-based date and
information manipulation including stealing and false data creation (Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H,
2014). Additionally, the Federal Bureau of Investigation defines cyberterrorism as a preplanned,
politically backed the technological use of computer systems to attack other computer and
network systems, data and computer programs causing extreme tensions in a country or the
targeted region. Cyberterrorism has different types and levels depending on the intense on the
network infrastructure (Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H, 2014). A cyberterrorism activity may be a
simple-unstructured activity that includes a simple hacking activity targets on an individual. The
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
11
latter involves a small level of data analysis on the target and control (Kshetri N. , 2005).
Besides, cyberterrorism may involve an advanced-structured use of computer system and well-
coordinated research on the target with a massive attack on the victim or victims. The attacker
uses a sophisticated and advanced computer system to technologically harass the target using
relatively well-analyzed target data (Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J., 2012). Lastly, a
cyberterrorism attack may involve very advanced technological know-how with well-developed
target data analysis and control leading to massive disruption of extensive computer networks.
Cyberterrorism has resulted in the loss of vital information for organizations like national
databases, hospitals, schools and many other vulnerable institutions as well as individuals.
The world has seen some cases of cyberterrorism in the recent past. Alleged hacking
from Russian individuals dominated the US elections. The hacking is allegedly used to control
the political outcome of the last US election race. The Russian government has however denied
the allegations of the cyber terrorism. The FBI is, however, doing further investigation on the
charges to reveal the truth about one of the highly profiled cyberterrorism case in the world’s
history. The cyberterrorism happening is a real revelation that no one is secure in the
technological networks as the latter has affected one of the most advanced computer and data
security systems in the US. Besides, data mining has backed some cases of cyberterrorism. For
example, in the recently completed Kenyan elections, there has been an allegation of use of the
Facebook platform to target voters in Kenya. The latter is a complicated case whereby data
miners targeted the Kenyan voters with threats with threatening information about the impacts of
Voting one of the election presidential election candidates; Raila Odinga.
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
12
The al-Qaeda has used cyberterrorism in many cases in their ill-intended operations to
harm the normal population in different countries. The terror militia group reportedly used
cyberterrorism to recruit more fighters in their areas of operation. Besides, the militia has used
cyberterrorism techniques to threaten targets and other members of the public in different
countries (Mateen, A., & Abbas, Q, 2016). Estonia has a history of cyberterrorism cases
conducted locally within the country’s borders and from external attackers. In April 2007.
Massive cyberterrorism marred the country after the removal of an otherwise remarkable WWII
statue in the county’s city, Tallinn. The latter brought about large-scale tension in the nation
among the citizens. The 21
st
century has seen exceptionally a fast rate of internet penetration and
massive use of social media across the globe. Social networks are now being used by cyber
terrorists to propagate hate, propaganda, hateful religions messages leading to tensions among
the population (Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., Bouhours, B., & Chon, S, 2014). A
globally renowned technocrats group, the Anonymous uses the lethal tool; denial of service
attack to threaten anyone, government, and organizations against them and have done it severally
against their attackers. The world is in a tension that massive cyberterrorism would lead to a
global economic crash like in the great depression. Research reveals that most countries
including North Korea and Iran are chasing cyberwarfare like the nuclear arms race. The latter
positions every nation in a vulnerable state as anyone can attack the other and cause massive loss
of internet and information technology capabilities hence weakened economic growth.
2. Fraud and financial crimes
Current trends in cyber-criminal cases involve extensive monetary damages from
financial institutions. Many banking sectors have embraced modern technology in their
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
13
operations hence making service delivery to customers smoother and efficient. Banking
institutions have integrated all their assets into a single network for ease of administration.
Internet and networking have seen the integration of banking customer’s data and accounted for
one and access to the bank have been more comfortable in the 21
st
century with the birth of the
internet and mobile banking. The innovation and advancement have, however, come with some
setbacks. Modernization and internet banking has exposed the banking sector to cyber attackers
hence tremendous losses in the banking industry. Computer fraud as it stands out is any
malicious intent to authoritatively delete, edit or obtaining of data of another party leading to
misrepresentation and consequent loss or destruction of data (Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., &
Makinde, J., 2012). The overdependence on technology by the baking sector has exposed it to
the hungry hackers leading to loss of customer data and money at the same time. Cybercriminals
have benefitted from the laxity in many institutions to change with the changing technology. The
hackers have developed more advanced tools to break the bank securities and get away
successfully with crucial data (Yar, 2013).
Bankers have been struck by some significant bank frauds including complicated loss of
their money in their trusted banks. Cybercriminals have over the years succeeded in accessing
banking details by forgery, bank impersonation, stealing checks, internet banking hacking and
fraudulent loans access. The complexity of the in cybercrime has rendered banks helpless in the
hands of the genius hackers who repeatedly jam automated payment systems and pay themselves
the money without the consent of the banking institution or the online payment system (Kshetri
N. , 2010). The fraudsters steal identities of bankers and use the information to access the
banking systems and withdraw vast amounts of money to international banks in other states.
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
14
Besides, the fraudsters delete the transaction history hence making it hard to track the fraud
activity. The 21
st
century has seen rapid advancements in technical skills that enable cheats to
forge look-alike checks leading to loss of billions of dollars in the banking sector hence slowing
down economic growth. Some cases of bank hacking and associated fraud include the UK banks
hacking in which a telegram report indicates that the banks lost approximately £650 million to
Russian hackers as from 2015.
3. Espionage
Espionage is another case of cybercriminal cases. Countries have developed coordinated
cyber-based attacks on other countries leading to conflicts and escalating tensions in the world.
Surveillance has been defined as any case of fetching data from another countries database;
especially concerning military and political information for the interest of the tapping country.
Espionage involves acts of spying on other nations, ether technologically by advanced data
fetching software’s or by use of well-trained personnel to gather the data from the ground.
Undercover work has been reported in many countries of the world with most of the countries
sending staff as secret agents to obtain specific information from the state of interest. States
conduct Cloak-and-dagger operation to unearth the crucial information they want from an enemy
or competitor country. The operations area however very risk and the latter have resulted from
many deaths as the victim countries have devised methods to tackle the same for the sake of their
national security. The world has seen escalated tensions of spying and hacking between
governments. The US, for instance, has in the recent past accused the Chinese government of
using its military to tap into America’s national database to obtain classified information on the
US (Mateen, A., & Abbas, Q, 2016). Leakware software has gained popularity in the 21
st
century
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
15
with malice and threats to personal secrecy in the hands of spying hackers. The anonymous
hackers use leakware software to steal data belonging to individuals or institutions and send risks
of publishing the information to the public. The latter is one of the most pronounce compromise
known to personal data secrecy as the leakwares have recorded a high success rate against the
victims. Unlike the ransomware, leakwares do not encrypt the data but merely steal it and send
threats to make it public (Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J., 2012). The leakwares
demand some amount of money be paid to keep the stolen data concealed lest it made public.
The latter shows how the cybercriminal acts have advanced in the modern times.
Cybercrime trends and cases in the 21
st
century are endless. Hackers have brought down
websites leaving the internet users in the “information darkness” (Kshetri N. , 2010). SQL
injections are the most used technique to test the security of websites hence exposing
vulnerabilities that are used for complete destruction of the sites. The SQL injections mainly
affect the SQL database-backed software or data running on a SQL database. The latter is the
primary method by which usernames and passwords of billions of internet users get into the
computers of the cybercriminals. FTP passwords theft has also been detected in some cases. The
latter involves stealing of personal website login credentials of an auto-logged individual from
the unsecured device (Bendovschi, 2015). The hacker then uses the details to log in to the
website and carry out unauthorized activities without the user's consent. Besides, the Cross-site
scripting is another elaborate web cybercrime on the rise. The Cross-site Scripting, dubbed XSS
involves the use of programs strategically posted on websites with a more substantial number of
users. The XSS software automatically downloads into the victim’s device when browsing a
website and runs without any prompt. Computer viruses have been invented technologically with
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
16
malicious intent by the coder. A virus can be defined as any software that is designed to cause
abnormal functioning of a computer system including loss of memory, clogged memory, freezing
of computer applications among many other computer problems (Bendovschi, 2015). Computer
virus corrupt, destroy and also hide stored data and files. Modification and deletion of records by
the virus have left many computer users helpless. Worms and Trojan horses are among many
other virus attacks used by cybercriminals to paralyze the service delivery of an automated
computer system.
Logic bombs are timed codes incorporated into program code to execute a given task
when triggered by another activity in the same computer applications (Kshetri N. , 2005). A logic
bomb severity depends on the function it’s programmed to execute. Some logic bombs are coded
to delete all files in a computer, destroy the computer memory, and damage the computer
bootloader among other lethal commands. Besides, logic bombs have been used to steal personal
information from a computer and destroy every streak of evidence into the deed. Logic bombs
include time bombs that set to execute its function at a given time catching the computer user by
surprise (Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J., 2012). Email bombing and spamming is one
of the most commonly used methods to obtain very crucial information of an individual. Email
bombing involves sending a large volume of malicious emails to a target hence crashing the
email servers and denial-of-service phenomena (Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H, 2014). Phishing
activities target many internet users whereby numerous emails are sent to many users
indiscriminatingly. The emails contain links leading to websites that provide malicious contents
like phishing software. Web jacking, internet stalking, cyberstalking and data diddling are also
cybercrimes committed at an alarming rate in the 21
st
century. Cybercriminals have made the
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
17
technological networks insecure with huge budgets allocated to improvement of internet security
networks. Despite the effort, mobile threats, hacktivism, and personal account takeovers are on
the increase; a worrying statistic (Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J, 2014).
Cybercriminals cases are getting more sophisticated yearly, an unknown future of computing
awaits.
TODAY’S CYBERCRIMINAL TRENDS.
18
References
Akhgar, B., & Arabnia, H. (2014). Emerging trends in ICT security.
Bendovschi, A. (2015). Cyber-attackstrends, patterns and security countermeasures. Procedia
Economics and Finance, 28, 24-31.
Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., Bouhours, B., & Chon, S. (2014). An analysis of the nature of
groups engaged in cyber crime.
Hassan, A. B., Lass, F. D., & Makinde, J. (2012). Cybercrime in Nigeria. Causes, effects and the way out,
2(7), 626-631.
Kshetri, N. (2005). Pattern of global cyber war and crime. A conceptual framework, 11(4), 541-562.
Kshetri, N. (2010). The global cybercrime industry. Economic, institutional and strategic perspectives.
Mateen, A., & Abbas, Q. (2016). Tsunami of Cyber Crime. Analysis of Cyber Crime New Trends, Causes
and Remedies in Future Prospectus., 152(8).
Smith, R., Grabosky, P., & Urbas, G. (2004). Cyber criminals on trial. Criminal Justice Matters, 58(1), 22-
23.
Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J. (2014). Digital crime and digital terrorism. Prentice Hall
Press.
Yar, M. (2013). ybercrime and society. Sage.

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