interaction with people who does the same (Li, Holt, Bossler, & May, 2015). For instance, a
female student who participates in a gossip group may end up a cyberbully when the group
sustains the gossip for a longer time. Similarly, a young boy who observes his brother cyberbully
others over the phone or social media is more likely to engage in the same act. Parents who
engage in violence more often can encourage their kids to develop aggressive behavior, which
enhances chances of acting aggressively towards others through online socialization platforms.
Therefore, understanding the reason for individuals becoming cyberbullies starts with knowing
their social background.
Apart from behavioral theories, one can understand the concept of cyberbullying through
routine activities theory of criminology. According to routine activity theory, the sequence or
rather organization of events in a particular society develops avenues for crime (Branic, 2015).
That is, everyday activities of individuals – such as work, means of social engagement, school,
groups of socialization, and ways of travel – significantly determine the frequency, where, how,
and to whom the crime happens. Since opportunities vary in time, space, and among different
people, the degree of committing a crime varies as well. Therefore, routine activity theory
advocates for analysis of societal structure and existing opportunities in reducing crimes.
When applied to cyberbullying, routine activity theorist would argue that individuals
engage in cyberbullying because they have structures that facilitate the vice. For example, teens
and preteens with access to smartphones and the internet are more likely to engage in teasing
each other. The same way, the pop culture rules most of the youths in this digital era thus making
structures in the society to facilitate cyberbullying. Routine activity theory points at three
facilitators of crime: offender, possible target, and incapable guardian (Holt, & Bossler, 2008). In
the case of cyberbullying, the perpetrators (offenders) can have a target in different forms. For