Database Management systems
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1.0 Introduction
The evolution in the trends in data storage technology as a result of increase in the
competition among various organizations has necessitated the integration of database
management systems in the organizational information technology infrastructure. This is to meet
the current and future demands for data storage in an efficient, secure, and cost effective manner.
The earlier versions of the database management systems were quite limited in terms of
applicability and adaptability. As a result, software developers came up with a structured
database management system that can handle huge data sets securely, accessibly and with
integrity. This research paper seeks to discuss the basics of database management and its various
components as they apply in a wide range of organizations.
2.0 Roles of a Database management system
The database management system is used in the storage of information where the data is
stored in the format of tables and columns. To facilitate the process of data retrieval, the data
stored in a database is allocated a unique identification feature such as a name, status, and the
type of data attribute. The database management system plays a significant role in concurrency
control by providing a logical view of a wide range of process responsible for data manipulation.
Moreover, the products of the database management system are made up of particular inputs that
need to be refined as they get captured in the organizational database (Clifford et al., 2014). The
database management system also ensures that the data stored is secure from unauthorized
access. The database security layers are enhanced by the ability of the database management
systems to define the user access priorities depending on their individually defined roles in an
organization. This security enforcement seeks to ensure that only specific users have the
permission to manipulate the data stored in a database.
3.0 Types of database management systems
3.1 Hierarchical database
A database management system which stored data such that there is a parent-children
relationship is called a hierarchical database. In this case, the data exists as a subordinate of each
other in the database such that the relationship is typically direct. In this case, the data structure
trees are used to define any two consecutive sets of data (Loudon & Loudon, 2017).
3.2 Network Database
A database management system is said to be a network database if the stored data has a
many-to-many relationship in the form of a network. In this case, the structure of a database, the
inter-relationship between the various data types allows for a graphical data structure whereby
its possible to use one data record as the key for the whole database.
3.3 Relational database
This is a database management system whereby the relationship between the various data
types is regarded in the tabular format such that it holds fundamental constructs of a network. In
a relational database, the data records are in the form of rows and columns that give the data a
two-dimensional array of structure as its stored in a database.
3.4 Object-oriented database
This type of database management system is made up of objects that contain the data
elements and the methods. This system is designed to support the implementation of classes and
inheritance of specific properties between the subclasses and the superclasses.
4.0 Applications in a database management system
4.1 MS Access
This is a simple relational database management system that is widely applied in the
design of smaller database as well as the process of data entry. Due to the advancement in
technology, the MS Access has been designed to enable efficient storage of data, ease of
accessibility, and data transfer. This feature of a database management system has special design
features that allows for connectivity with a wide range of data sources such as the excel sheets
and databases (Kim & Choi, 2017).
4.2 My SQL
This Special feature of a database management system is used in the integration of
various web applications with the database for retrieval and storage of data especially in relation
to PHP. Mt SQL makes it possible to write and delete data from web applications since it acts as
their link to the database.
4.3 SQL server
This is a typical relational database management system that is mainly applied in small
businesses for the purpose of data warehousing and the general database management practices.
The SQL server plays a similar role with the MS Access although they have fairly distinct
The major difference between the SQL server and the MS Access is that MS Access is
file based with the ability to hold a maximum file of 2GB in a free distributable runtime
(Connoly & Begg, 2005). On the other hand, the SQL Server is a client-based model that holds
data of up to 4GB.
5. 0 Components of a database management system
5.1 Data Definition Language
This refers to the language used by the database designers to specify the form in which
the contents of a database are stored. This involves clearly defining all the data elements in their
original format before they are transformed into the formats which the application programs can
understand. Below are the common Data Definition Language operations
(CREATE TABLE…) This is an operation used to define the attributes ad create the
tables in a database.
(ALTER TABLE…) This operation makes it possible to add or remove the table
attributes in a database
(!) (DROP TABLE) This operation seeks to delete all the contents of a table that contains
data in a database
5.2 Data Manipulation Language
This refers to the database design language that is used to describe the operations carried
out on data to facilitate storage, changing, and searching of the data. The following data
manipulation operations are carried out in a Structured Query Language (Gouhar, 2017).
(INSERT) This operation adds data to a table
(UPDATE) This operation manipulates that data stored in a database
(DELETE) This operation removes data from a table
(SELECT) This manipulation operation queries for specific data in the database
5.3 Data Dictionary
This component of a database management system is usually an automated file used for
keeping a record of all data characteristics and operations to ensure data security. The data
dictionaries are used in the processing of reports, program locations, and production of lists.
6.0 Advantages of Database Management System
The database management system facilitates easier sharing of data by creating an
environment that allows the end users to access the data for a faster response to the changes in
the environment.
The database management system ensures high levels of data security since it provides a
framework that allows enforcement of information security and privacy.
Database management system ensures efficiency in decision-making since the date is
well managed to allow for easier accessibility and improved generation of high-quality
information which is important for decision-making.
7.0 Disadvantages of Database Management Systems
The integration of database management systems in the organizations IT infrastructure
results in increased costs since it requires expensive software and hardware components as well
as the services of skilled experts. Moreover, the costs of maintaining the database management
system infrastructure are high.
Database management systems increase the complexity in organizational management
since it integrates with a wide range of information technology devices and interfaces that cause
a change in the normal operations of the organization. This calls for increased monitoring on the
database infrastructure to ensure information security.
8.0 The Biblical Worldview
Some scientific concepts have been directly applied by the theologians as they present the
concept of Big Data which is collected from a variety of sources in the relation to its interaction
with theology as well as the hermeneutical issues. The concept of Big Data has expanded rapidly
in the last few years thus influencing the possibility of conducting a visual quantitative data
analysis whose complexity can only be compared with the biblical text. This has made it possible
to study various language structures written in a wide range of writing styles and codes ("Forbes
Welcome", 2017). For instance, the bible codes have caused a heated controversial debate where
some scholars claim that God applied the concept of Big Data in encrypting the Bible. A
common relation is made to the statistical analysis which asserts that when 50 letters derived
from either the book of Genesis or Exodus, the final word spells as “Torah”. This is considered
as divine cryptography of Big Data.
9.0 Conclusion
The database management system is an important component of the IT infrastructure in
all organizations. This is because; the large data requires sophisticated storage mechanisms that
would ensure easy access to the data as well as maximum security on the data stored. In this
research paper, the various roles of a database in relation to data storage and information security
management has been discussed. The various types of database management systems, their
functions, and the components that make up the database management systems have also been
discussed in detail. Moreover, the various applications that facilitate data storage in various
formats have also been subjected to a discussion. This research paper has outlined the key
advantages and disadvantages of the database management system thus providing invaluable
information for any business considering this system for their databases.
Connolly, T. M., & Begg, C. E. (2005). Database systems: a practical approach to design,
implementation, and management. Pearson Education.
Clifford, P., & Robinson, M. (2014). U.S. Patent Application No. 14/786,728.
Gouhar, A. (2017). Database Management System. International Journal of Engineering
Science, 11766.
Kim, N. H., An, D., & Choi, J. H. (2017). Introduction. In Prognostics and Health Management
of Engineering Systems(pp. 1-24). Springer, Cham.
Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2016). Management information system. Pearson Education
Forbes Welcome. (2017). Retrieved 15 December 2017, from

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