Diabetes revised

Running head: DIBETES 1
Running head: DIBETES 2
Diabetes is a condition where the blood sugar level rises beyond the normal levels due to
shortage of insulin or malfunction of cell. Approximately 282,000,000 people lived with diabetes
in the year 2013. The number has continuously increased over the years. Diabetes is a world
concern even though it is treatable.
Diabetes exists in three forms namely;
The first type of Diabetes. It refers to condition whereby the body fails to produce
Insulin. The condition is common among people at their early adulthood years although it
is rarer compared to type 2 diabetes. This type of diabetes is usually controlled by insulin
injection which is administered from when it is diagnosed. Patients are also advised
ensure proper levels of glucose in order to contain the situation.
The second type of Diabetes. Refers to the situation whereby insulin is produced in low
amounts or where the body cells do not show any response to insulin. This is the main
type of Diabetes with approximately 90% of all diabetes cases reported to be type 2. This
condition can be control by losing weight, ensuring a diet which is healthy and free from
disease causing organisms, increased exercise and ensuring glucose level is monitored.
However, the second type of Diabetes is assumed to be a progressive disease which
grows serious with time.
Gestational diabetes. This condition affects women during pregnancy period. A number
of women have high levels of glucose in their blood exceeding the normal level. This
condition may be as a result of low insulin production which is not sufficient to transport
all the glucose into their cells resulting to progressive rise of blood glucose levels.
Running head: DIBETES 3
Majority of women with this type of diabetes can control this condition through exercise
and diet. Only a small portion will need to take glucose controlling medications.
The scope of the research.
The theme of this research is to evaluate how to control diabetes. In this research we are going to
have four patients of diabetes. The two patients who have type 1 diabetes and the other two
patients who have type 2 diabetes. The aim of these two pairs is to closely examine the
symptoms causes of each type of diabetes and the practices that could be employed to control
diabetes. In each pair one patient acts as a control experiment. The experiments should be carried
out under invigilation of a qualified medic. As a psychologist the theme of the experiment is to
advice the depressed patients on what practices to do in order to control or prevent diabetes
which I a world concern.
The habits of the patients should be closely examined. Self-assessment should also be done
where the patients discloses some changes in their normal metabolism and what they feel
compared to what they felt before the disease. The pair should later be put under different diets
and exercise programs with the blood sugars levels sugar levels being recorded in order to
monitor the changes and effects of the programs. The other pair should be only given the
required medication and be allowed to live freely. This experiment is a long time experiment.
Work from other researchers is also borrowed.
The following is the information gathered in the course of experiment and also from reports and
articles of other researchers on the same issue of diabetes.
Running head: DIBETES 4
Signs and symptoms of diabetes
Since diabetes has 3 types there are signs and symptoms of the three types. The common
signs and symptoms of both types include:
The patient feels hungry and tired. This is because the body converts the food into
glucose that the cells use for energy. Insulin is required to transport glucose to the
cells for respiration. If the cells resist insulin, or there is low production of insulin,
insufficient or no glucose reaches the cells hence no energy. This makes one feel
more tired and hungry than usual.
Feeling thirstier and more frequent urination. Glucose is reabsorbed back to the
body in kidneys. Due to diabetes, blood sugars go high hence the kidneys are unable
to reabsorb the glucose. This makes the body to make more urine. As fluids are often
lost in form of urine, the body needs more water to recover the lost fluids.
Dry mouth and itchy skin. Due to frequent urination, there is less moisture thus the
skin is dehydrated. The cracking effect makes the skin to itch and it becomes dry.
Blurred vision. Due to changing levels of fluid in the body, the eye lens swells up.
The lens loses its shape which is ideal for its focusing hence it cannot perform its
functions properly.
Type 1 diabetes can be indicated by the following signs and symptoms:
Unplanned weight loss
Nausea and vomiting
Type 2 diabetes reflects the following signs:
Running head: DIBETES 5
Yeast infections. Due to plenty of glucose makes the yeast to thrive.
Healing of sores or cuts tends to take a longer period.
A lot of pain in the legs and leg joints.
Being diagnosed with diabetes is sometimes depressing. Having some symptoms of diabetes
does not necessarily mean one has diabetes. There are three ways in which one can confirm if
their metabolism is affected by diabetes.
1. The AIC test- a normal person shows 5.7%. If this percentage is exceeded, there is
2. The FPG test- glucose level should be lower than 100mg/dl for a person with a
normal metabolism. If the levels exceed 100mg/dl, then a case of diabetes is reported.
3. The OGTT in this test, the normal level of glucose should be at 140mg/dl. Higher
level than this is a case of diabetes
Diabetes can be controlled and in some cases it is treatable. Gastric surgery bypass surgery can
reverse type 2 diabetes in most cases. The negative side of the surgery is that the disease re
appears after 2 or more years depending on the time suffered. This implies that early surgery will
increase the duration before the disease reappears again or sometimes it might not reappear
Type 1 diabetes is controlled by regular insulin injection and proper diet with a lot of exercises.
Type 2 is treated with tablets, exercise and special diet, but sometime insulin injection is
essential. It is vital to control diabetes adequately to avoid developing complications like;
Running head: DIBETES 6
- Infections
- Erectile dysfunction
- Cuts and wounds take longer to heal.
- Peripheral arterial disease
- Nephropathy
- Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic Non-ketotic syndrome
- Ketoacidosis
- Gastro paresis
- Hearing loss
- Hypertension
- Heart problems
- Skin complications
- Eye complications
Diabetes can be prevented. It is good to keep track of one’s blood sugar by testing it from time to
time. This will help to maintain the glucose at the right level. Healthy diet is also vital in
controlling blood sugars. There are various foods which plays an essential role in maintaining
sugar levels. They include;
- Vegetables. They should contain low levels of carbohydrates. For instance, onions,
mushrooms, eggplants tomatoes and many others.
- Greens. Green is healthy and contains low carbohydrates. They include kales, spinach
and such type of greens
- Low calorie drinks. This might be water infused with fruits and vegetables.
Running head: DIBETES 7
- Melon or berries
- Whole grain and high fiber food
- Healthy fats
- Protein rich foods.
Regular exercise and avoiding junks plays a major role in the prevention of diabetes. Regular
testing of blood sugars is important in helping the patient to keep track of glucose level in the
blood as they follow the diet to contain the condition.
Challenges those are likely to be encountered in the course of the experiment.
Diabetes is not the same for all individuals. In some people, it might be as a result of poor
lifestyle while in others it is not the same. It is therefore some activities might work out for some
people and fail in other people. For instance, in the case of diabetes as a result of poor life style,
changing the life style is a way of containing the symptoms of diabetes while this might not work
for people who contracted diabetes because their cells are resistant to insulin. This implies
diabetes can only be controlled or cured based on what leads to the diversion of metabolism.
Running head: DIBETES 8
Diabetes by Anne R cappola; Edward h Livingston
Psychology In diabetes: identifying and meeting the need by diabetes UK; Royal College of
Diabetes by Ppedagogos E.
Diabetes by Gail Eramo Melkus.

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