Factors Affecting Employment of Graduates in China
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There are numerous graduates who are unemployed in china, while the labour shortage is really
increasing in both quantity and quality. When looked closely the issue of unemployment is very
detrimental and should be addressed.
For this analysis the researcher will focus on the effectiveness of the training process which is then
evaluated using four elements, which are; efficiency, activities, inputs and outputs. The level of
efficiency is brought out through the participation in the society, income and level of meets in work.
Through this analysis of employment status of graduates in china, the researcher is going to use one
university from china to evaluate the current training processes. As such, a possible solution will be
developed to enhance the quality of training programmes and the quality of service. The solution that
will be developed from the analysis will help with the satisfaction of the “student consumer”, in order to
meet the needs of the employers, enhancing the competitive advantage in institutions as well as
reducing the gray matter waste for the whole society.
The research paper will focus on the employment status of graduates in the recent years. For an
empirical study, the researcher will use Kent international college in Vietnam as the case study to
provide an overview of the employment issues or statuses for the graduates who pursue different
courses. Based on the developed findings, the researcher will provide some policy recommendations
that can aid in enhancing improved quality of training and service to reach the expected needs and the
aspirations of employers.
Literature Review
The first question developed, is what is a good job? In response to this, Paul and Beth (2011), suggested
that a good job is that that one is paid enough to feed their family, and provides a safe and legal working
environment. According to the final year students and the working experts they define a good job is
which has the following elements: the work allows the development and has opportunities for
promotion in line with the individual capacity, the work pays an adequate income, and the work has
consistent preferences, abilities and studied majors. Precisely, it is considered to be a hustle that fits
interests, majors and ability; ensures that individuals have developed, pays a fair wage, have
promotional opportunities and provides a well-defined legal, safe working environ.
Theory of career development-300
According Lowe and Schellenberg (2001), the authors suggest that the choice of career should be based
on the theory of Trait and factor. Some of the factors are having an in depth knowledge of the job
specification, an accurate knowledge of oneself and the ability to make a proper match between the
two. The author perceive that the closer an individual’s personality to job, the greater chances the
individual will have job satisfaction and the level of career success. Career choice is essentially
influenced using three factors; the emotional factors and personal values, influence of the education,
the practical factors (Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herma Theory (1951).Additionally, individuals are
attracted to particular occupation that provides them satisfaction and meet there personal
needs(Holland’s career topology,1959).The closer an individual’s personality to job, the higher the
satisfying possibility. According to Lent, Brown and Hacket (1996), they perceive that career choice is
mainly affected by individual’s beliefs that they developed, the author refines the idea through four
main sources: physiological states and reaction, vicarious learning, the personal performance
accomplishments and social persuasions.
In relation to the analysis of the theories of career choice, they indicate that the contemporary jobs are
as a result of a selection, analysis, accumulation, synthesis, and the decision progress that is formed not
only presently but also from childhood. The process is essentially impacted and influenced by both
external and the internal factors. As such, the modern employment situation of the graduates is not only
affected by the processes involved in the education sector but also it is affected by the previous process.
For instance, if a student don’t select a suitable career that is consistent with their interests and
personality, the chances of them being satisfied with their current job will be very minimum. Hence, this
reduces the chances of the student on landing in a suitable job.
Model of career Development-300
According to Sampson, Peterson and Reardon (1992), the authors suggested that the choices that
individuals do make in life, they occur in a cycle. The choices can be subdivided into three subcategories
which are also known as CASVE cycle. The cycles are stages are :( 1) communication, through the
analysis of the internal and the external Cues one can identify the gap that exists between where they
are currently and where they could wish to be in the future ;( 2) Analysis, this stage focuses on
individuals ability to learn more about themselves, the decision they make and the work they do. This
can be done through analyzing the personal experience and the information that is obtained from the
assessments ;( 3) Synthesis, through synthesizing all the information that is derived in the initial stages,
individuals mainly graduate can expand their list of possible careers with the aid of this stage.(4)Valuing,
this stage concentrate on evaluating the benefits and the cost of each alternative;(5)Execution, this
stage mainly focuses on formulating a plan for implementing an uncertain choice. The process end at
the communication stage to identify the internal and external factors. By reviewing both the internal
states and external demands in the stages, graduates will learn if their uncertain choices are right one
for them.
The reason of job choice-600
Choosing job that is consistent with the practical experience, learning ability and trained major: Students
were grouped by the course they are undertaking like marketing, human resource management,
finance, accounting have different views from those undertaking marketing course(Anderson et
al,1991).For the marketing courser they had a positive response on whether they will the same career or
not. For those students who were not doing the business course they had a different had a neutral
feedback. Additionally, for the finance and accounting students they had a low response since they had
already declared their choices. According to a study done by Kim (2008), the author suggested that most
of the students who were pursuing a course in hotel and management course at the AUT University they
would wish to work in the industry of hospitality after they graduate, and then they would volunteer to
work in the food and beverage department in the beginning. Chako (1991), students were aware that
the only means of archiving the goal of finding a good job that is suitable to the chosen course is only
through education. Another study conducted at Singapore university by freshmen suggested that
interpersonal skills and experience are the most valuable personalities to archive a job that is good (Fatt,
Choosing the high income jobs
A study conducted by parmely et al (1987) suggest that students have the trend of choosing jobs that
are mainly linked to potential high earnings in the future. Another study that links with this idea is that
of (Chako, 1991; Ferry, 2006), the two authors suggests that money is the reason behind students
selecting specific careers. In a survey that was carried out by Vinary and shami (2000), the results were
that 50% of the survey participants suggested that reward and high wages are the core reasons while
choosing jobs. Moreover, it is perceived that the thoughts of the young and potential managers, the
money compensation is the most valuable factor while measuring the value of a given job.
Choosing jobs that have good working environment
The previous researches that have been done perceive that despite the external factors of money and
the promotional opportunities, have a role in affecting the graduates decision on job choice, also a good
working environment is a very important factor affecting the decision made by the graduate (Delvin and
Peterson, 1994;Andrew and Eldos,2010).Additionally, Gooding(1988) made a discovery that the values
of individuals do change and they prefer to be in a safer environment rather than high pay. Individuals
do desire to land on a good that give an opportunity to develop in the future, also the ability to learn
while they are on their job and the ability to enhance their skills and knowledge.
Location of the employer
It has been located by many previous studies that upon students deciding to choose a job, they tend to
appreciate the location of the employer. The survey that was conducted on 200 Indian management
graduate, seconded this statement.
AS the operation process is concerned the selection of an individual for employment is generally
affected by many different internal and external factors. The internal factors which can also be termed
as the internal motivation such as the learning abilities, excitement, aptitudes, expectations, inclination
and the lifestyle act as a vital factor on determining the decision making process while choosing the kind
of job. Additionally, the literature presented on this paper also suggests that an individual should
consider other influential factors such as power, income, work environment, promotion, promotional
opportunities, career development and job prestige. The external factors such as public opinion,
employers need, family advice and socio economic conditions they indirectly influence the choices
graduates make while selecting job. Moreover, the earlier decision that was made influences ones
decision regarding job selection after they graduate.
Choosing jobs that have promotional opportunities
According, to previous studies made by Delvin and Peterson (1994); Assari (1995) and Assari and Karia
(2002), the authors suggest that promotion opportunities have an influence on the graduates decision of
selecting jobs. Additionally, the New Zealand and the U.S.A students they value the promotional
opportunities over other factors like Working challenges, job type’s conditions and training. This
matches with the results that were released by Asaari (1995) a case developed by final year students
from the University of Sains in Malaysia.
Choosing jobs that have professional growth
A lot of studies have developed a literature that professional growth is an essential factor that
influences the decision of occupation choice (chow& Ngo, 2011; Assari, 1995; Delvin & Peterson,
1994).A study was conducted by chow and Ngo (2011), and there were about 1200 participants who
were students in china, the study revealed that there are career differences in career choosing decisions
and career interests between men and women and there are factors affect the decisions of job choice
between them. Thus, both the male and the female students have the same view in relation to
professional growth and professional opportunities when deciding to choose jobs.
Suggested Research and Hypothesis and Model-300
Under this study model, the researcher majors on the researches that were previously done, review of
literature, the experts qualitative research and lastly determination of variable composition by use of
the comments available. This model is composed of 6 hypothesis that ranges from H1to H6. The groups
in H1 to H6 are the independently quantitative variable and they tend to have direct impact to the
dependent variable which is the capability to get a suitable job. The independent variables include;
Education process is the process in which students come up with a scientific world, in addition to
workers important personality from effect taken from school. This process is made up of two forms. The
first one is the impact education has to the individuals who are educated and the second one is the
reaction that the educated individual give on their self-improvement of their own personality.
Up on performing a specific job, professional skills tends to be the essential knowledge and skills
Entrepreneurship is a sequence of positive attitude on the creativity and implementation. Dare to risks
and innovation are the major characteristics of entrepreneurship.
Knowledge that individuals have gained by themselves from the past cases is the practical experience.it
is normally gained by being exposed to reality or experiencing the real situation that is happening.
The capability of assimilating behavior, society and attitude that is applied for interpersonal
communication is referred to as soft skills.it is closely related to the use of language making it to be a
sociological term.
Social context-is an evaluation of factors such as education, income, wealth, occupation and residence.
To explore, adjust and supplement the observed variable, the researcher made use of quantitative
research method to interview the participants. The participant in this research were the graduates
teachers and management of KIC. The main purpose of quantitative research was to test theoretical
models and evaluate measurement scale. Descriptive statistics of sample groups such as majors,
employment rate and gender were analyzed by use of statistic method. Sample groups that based on
majors, year of graduation and learning capability used this method in measuring the equality of the
average value of the sample that was used to test the possibility of the graduates securing a suitable
jobs. In finding out the factors that influenced employment status of the graduates, the researcher used
multiple linear regression.
Gender gaps in Employment
The analysis shows that it is so difficult for students who are undertaking bachelor’s degrees in law,
computer science, and English education to be able to acquire more job opportunities in China. This has
been a major factor that has affected most graduate in China because a larger percentage of students
partake these courses. The women have been affected a lot when it comes to the reservation wages
when they enter the labor market. They have received lower reservation wages compared to the male
gender. According to Bradley, the males that have gotten the education in a high-quality institution are
less likely to be unemployed. This, because the labor market does acknowledge them as the bright
individuals because of the institutions, are respected in the society. The students from the other less
unrecognized institutions feel neglected despite their ability to produce better results. According to
Zhou male students are preferred to the female when it comes to the labor market of China. The male
students are always considered energetic and can be easily controlled by organizations. An analysis
shows that 77.1% of male graduate sign contracts in the labor market as compared to the female
graduate who signs around 71.2% contracts. The gender gaps have been worrying over the year as it is
set to be improved to improve the effectiveness of job opportunities in the labor market where all
genders are given same opportunities.
Inadequate Educational Attainment
Most school institutions do not provide the better educational facilities to the students and the end up
producing graduates who are not ready for the labor market. The labor market requires skilled
graduates who can provide quality services to organizations. Most of the graduates in China are
unqualified to be in the market as most of them come from the institution that is not yet satisfied to
provide better quality education. The poor performance of companies comes with having unqualified
choices when it comes to employment to graduates from unqualified institutions. These institutions lack
better facilities to provide quality education to students to enable them to be skilled when getting to the
market. According to Zhou, students with Master’s degree find it more accepted in institutions because
they are believed to be very equipped to a certain profession. The graduate with master’s degree is
always preferred in China because of their competitive nature when it comes to the level of skills
acquired during the education period. In order to be accepted in China’s labor market, a graduate has to
be competitive than other people in the market. The education level matters a lot because it describes
how effective you can be in an organization (Zhang, 2011).
Average grades in the Market
According to Jensen, the analysis shows that average grades have a positive impact on the job
opportunities in the labor market. In China in order for graduates to attain jobs opportunities easily,
they have to be with enough credits to prove they are skilled to have the job opportunities to handle the
works. The recent researches have shown that the graduates who have too many part-time jobs are
unlikely to acquire job opportunities in the labor market. The part-time jobs prove that they are unable
to stick and concentrate on one job opportunity. The organizations are always in need of laborers who
are able to provide better and quality work. The importance of hard work in school will impact to the
easy search of jobs in the labor market (David, 2015).
Discussion and Analysis
The independent samples test has different outcomes according to the results displayed in each level. In
each different sample it shows that the male dominates the female in terms of job opportunities.
According to ANOVA the statistics show that the 0.355 prove that there is no difference between the
graduates and the majors on the ability to find a suitable job in the labor market. More so, the ANOVA
test shows that in the year 2009, the capability of graduates to find a suitable job is different in 2010,
2011 because of difference in the reliability which is at 99%. According to Bonferroni, the T-test results
proved that there is a difference of graduates attaining suitable jobs in the year 2009 and the year 2011.
Another result according to ANOVA did show that education results in the labor market does not affect
the chances of a graduate to attain to a good job. This has been a concern to most parents of students in
Universities and colleges about the results the provide at the end of the education program.
According to this literature review and the correlation analysis, the independent variables are used by
SPSS software on regression model. More so the theoretical models can be tested using the regression
model and the 48% of the change of the dependent variables. More so, the results of ANOVA test have
showed that the F value shows a significant value of 0.000 which means that Ho hypothesis has been
rejected to up to 99% level. This level suggests that the education system, the businesses and the
practical experience related to the capability of finding a suitable job opportunity in the labor market.
There are three variables with different statistical significance level. The significance variable is
education process which represents a significance of 0.000, entrepreneurship with a significance value
of 0.001 ad lastly the practical experience has a significance value of 0.000. Therefore, this shows that
the variables relate to the independent variables of the capability to get a suitable job. There is a
positive correlation between the dependent variables and the independent variables which show a
positive sign.
The table below represents the relationships between the dependent and independent variable
Conclusion and recommendation
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compensation all the way: It's all in the wallet" available at
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