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Electrical engineering

1
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH AND LOW
VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
[Student Name]
[School]
[Course/Number]
December 9, 2018
[Instructor Name]
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Introduction
For the past few years, innovations and simulation systems have dominated the electrical
engineering sector in order to improve various aspects of transmission of various voltages.
Besides, it is important to note that transmission of voltages occur based on a number of
generational aspects. High and low voltage distribution occurs based on the specificity of the
characteristics that create the major differences in the system (Cotilla-Sanchez et al., 2012, p.
12). In order to understand the differences in the characteristics involved in the two transmission
system networks, a number of experiments were carried out using various transmission voltages.
This report seeks to discuss the characteristics of generation, transmission and low voltage
distribution networks based on the research that was carried out using the tests and laboratory
experiments using the voltages.
Background of the study
There has been intense research on the differences in the characteristics of high and low
voltage electrical power distribution networks for quite some time. Having been motivated by
such research, various tests were carried out with the aim of understanding the practicality that is
often associated with transmission of high and low voltages in various system networks (Cotilla-
Sanchez et al., 2012, p.123). Using HAVC Transmission Line Analyser and OrCAD as analysis
tools and software respectively, it was apparent that the need to carry out experiments that would
create changes in the understanding of the characteristics was inevitable. In fact, the experiments
were carried out as a result of lack of clear cut characteristics of the high and low voltage
transmission systems. The difference in characteristics will be of great importance to the entire
electrical engineering fraternity as they will make the readers understand the differences
involved in various transmission networks and encourage more research in the study.
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Procedure
In order to come up with the most accurate results, a number of procedures were used in
carrying out the experiments. The experiments were carried out using various voltages that gave
various readings in terms of current, frequency, and power factor. The first procedure involved
using experiments that had low voltage as 151V and the high voltage as 159V. The power was
run through the system network under the frequency of 50Hz and a system power factor of zero
(Cotilla-Sanchez et al., 2012. P.67). The network system was monitored keenly and the resultant
Vr, Vy and Vb recorded for the sending end and the receiving end. In addition, the current was
monitored as Iy, Ib and Ir. In order to understand the changes and differences in the voltage and
current within the system network, it was important to note the recorded values at each stage of
the test. Moreover, the test also ensured that the results for sending and receiving ends were
carried out using different lines names and Line (1-2), Line (2-3) and Line (3-1).
The second experiment was also carried out to check on the power cycle of the high and
low voltage distribution network systems with the standard voltage being kept at 150V. The
centre of the cycle was recorded as -445.5835,-45.808 while the radius was given as 471.77. In
addition, the experiment also recorded the radius of the power cycle.
The entire procedure was mainly aimed at ensuring that the results of the experiments
were accurate and able to give clear cut differences between high and low voltage distribution
networks. The procedure also involved carrying out experiments 1 -5 in the attached HAVC
Transmission Line Analyser so as to get the actual differences in figures of the voltages that were
used in the experiments at every stage. Under this procedure, it was important to ensure that the
process was fool proof and all loopholes avoided in order to get the best results.
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The next procedure involved examining and analysing real, apparent and reactive power
components in linear and non-linear loads. The process involved use of HAVC Transmission
Line Analyser readings to make comparisons that could help the users in noting the differences
in the low and high voltage distribution systems. In order to understand all the aspects associated
with low and high voltage transmissions, the experiments had to be carried out at different
intervals so as to avoid any errors that might arise during the experiment (Zhai, 2011, p.22). The
third experiment also involved monitoring of the results on the receiving and sending end so as
to get the final results on the differences between the various voltage loads that were used.
It was evident that various changes were noticed during the entire experiment stage from
experiment one to experiment five. In fact, it was the changes that were applied in understanding
the differences that existed between the high and low voltage system networks. As a matter of
fact, the procedure mainly involved use of the same process while changing the values at every
stage of the experiment (Masters, 2013, p.86). Other activities used in the procedure involved
evaluation of the optimum capacitor value for unity / near unity power factor for power
distribution network. This was done by comparing the power factors that were recorded during
different intervals of the voltages used in the experiments. The procedure also involved
conducting a series of simulation assessments in order to help in determining the power factor in
linear and non-linear loads connected at distribution network (Zhai, 2011, p.23). By
incorporating all the above procedures, it was easy to ensure that the system worked out as it was
supposed to and accurate results arrived at.
Materials and methods
The main materials that were used in the entire experiment included HVAC transmission
line analyser that was made up of various sections with each section performing a specific
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function. The first section of the machine was the generating station which mainly carried out
power generation activities based on the following features:
Generating Station Healthy(R, Y, B) - Power ONOFF indicate on of 3 phase input
supply.
Generating Unhealthy - Indicates fault condition
From NC1 (VPST-100HV3#F) - Normally closed relay contact.
From NO1 (VPST-100HV3#F) - Normally open relay contact.
A1 - Indicates R phase Current
A2 - Indicates Y phase Current
A3 - Indicates B phase Current
Sending End Voltage (P, N) - Used to measure any one phase voltage
Contactor - Connects or disconnects 3 phase supply with respect to measurement and
protection relay (NO, NC) terminals Isolator Switch - Auxiliary switch of Contactor.
Another part of the equipment that was involved in the experiments was the transmission
line model that had the following features:
The Simulated transmission line is considered for length of 180 km. The line may be used
as
3 ф, 180 km line or 1
ф,540 km line. The 180 km line is divided into 6 π sections.
Each π section is 30km long. The line inductance is taken for every 30 km and
capacitance for every 15 km. The actual value of line parameters of 400KV transmission line are
0.02978Ω/km,1.06mH/km and 0.0146μ F/km.
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The equipment was designed in a way that ensured it carried the required amount of
voltage and carry out the measurement procedures so as to give the most accurate readings.
Furthermore, the equipment help in understanding the readings since it had an automated system.
The third part of the equipment was made up in a way that enabled it to carry out the
voltage test functions by using a number of system design requirements that included the
following aspects:
The power carried by the transmission line is 250W.
Isolator Switch - Auxiliary switch of Contactor
R1, Y1, B1, N1 - Input terminals of transmission line module
R2, Y2, B2, N2 - Input terminals of transmission line module
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(R, Y, B) - Power ONOFF indication of 3 phase input supply.
The second equipment was made up of the measurement section that mainly carried out
tasks associated with measuring the voltages and the results got from the experiments.
The conditions that were necessary to ensure accuracy of the results in the experiments
included maintaining optimum current and voltages to the required levels. In addition, the
experiment was carried out under room temperature to avoid any changes in temperature that
could lead to problems in recording and reading the results. The experiment also depended on a
control procedure that used slightly different values to create changes in the entire experiment.
With the aim of noting the differences in characteristics of low and high voltage systems, the
entire procedure was based on the eligibility of the results (Yan & Saha, 2012, p.58).
Findings
Based on the procedures, methods and equipment used in the experiment, it is evident
that the high and low voltage distribution networks have a number of distinct characteristics.
High voltage transmission network systems often have a similar relative frequency, but never
have the same comparative phase as AC power point interchanges. In order to transport the
power that is generated at various generating stations when the network is under low voltages,
the level of materials used in the transmission channels must be able to hold the current without
causing any electric leakages (Short, 2014, p.45). . It is also notable that low voltage power
distribution networks have a number of economical values that help in saving the cost and
requirements of the transmission.
Low voltage power distribution networks are designed in a manner that make them
transport the induced voltages at cheaper costs compared to high voltage systems. At low voltage
level, both the weight and width of insulation in the network used to transmit the voltages have
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to be less in the usable alternator. As a result, the transmission of electricity in low voltages cuts
the total costs since the lesser the alternator, the lesser the cost. Besides, it directly minimizes the
total cost and required size of the alternator (Ghosh & Ledwich, 2012, p.34).
On the other hand, the high voltage transmission networks also were seen to have specific
characteristics that made them relatively expensive to use. One of the characteristics is that high
voltage transmission and distribution networks require more advanced transmission cables hence
making it expensive to transport such. In terms of generation of high voltage electricity voltages,
it is of great essence to understand the fact that the generation requires maximum cabling
processes (Mezhiba & Friedman, 2012, p.101).
High-voltage distribution network systems often consist of overhead conductors that are
never covered using any form of insulation. Besides, the conductor material used is often made
of an aluminium metal alloy that gets divided into a number of strands that get reinforced using
steel strands. However, Copper was at times used in the overhead transmission of high voltage
electricity voltages (Pagani & Aiello, 2013). Most systems use aluminium due to its lighter
weight compared to any other usable metals. In addition, aluminium usually yields only slightly
reduced system performance and its price costs much less compared to copper and other
conductors. Overhead conductors that are used in high voltage transmission are often supplied by
various metal and cabling companies that are found worldwide. Improvement of conductor
material and wire shapes is also regularly used with the aim of allowing an increase in capacity
and to modernize several transmission circuits.
Another method that can be used to distribute high voltage charges is the underground
cabling procedure. This involves the transfer of electric power using underground power
cables instead of applying the overhead power lines. The use of underground cables is always
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preferred when distributing high voltage charges since it is more secure and is rarely affected by
bad weather conditions. However, the cables have to be insulated thereby making it expensive to
use in high voltage distribution network systems (Richardson, Flynn, & Keane, 2012, p.87).
Conclusion and recommendations
In summary, the entire report has looked into a number of factors associated with low and
high voltage transmission network systems. Using various experiments, the paper has come up
with a number of findings on the characteristics of low and high voltage transmission networks.
In addition, the experiments also gave results that were quite useful in helping compile the
report. Based on the results, procedures, and findings, it is recommended that the generation,
transmission and distribution of electricity using overhead cables when dealing with high
voltages. On the other hand, it is recommended that low voltage electricity be transmitted using
underground cabling.
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References
Richardson, P., Flynn, D., & Keane, A. (2012). Optimal charging of electric vehicles in low-
voltage distribution systems. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 27(1), 268-279.
Pagani, G. A., & Aiello, M. (2013). The power grid as a complex network: a survey. Physica A:
Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 392(11), 2688-2700.
Ghosh, A., & Ledwich, G. (2012). Power quality enhancement using custom power devices.
Springer Science & Business Media.
Short, T. A. (2014). Electric power distribution handbook. CRC press.
Mezhiba, A. V., & Friedman, E. G. (2012). Power distribution networks in high speed integrated
circuits. Springer Science & Business Media.
Yan, R., & Saha, T. K. (2012). Investigation of voltage stability for residential customers due to
high photovoltaic penetrations. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 27(2), 651-662.
Zhai, M. Y. (2011). Transmission characteristics of low-voltage distribution networks in China
under the smart grids environment. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, 26(1), 173-
180.
Masters, G. M. (2013). Renewable and efficient electric power systems. John Wiley & Sons.
Cotilla-Sanchez, E., Hines, P. D., Barrows, C., & Blumsack, S. (2012). Comparing the
topological and electrical structure of the North American electric power
infrastructure. Systems Journal, IEEE, 6(4), 616-626.

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