umbilical stump especially when people carry out traditional processes such as cutting the
umbilical cord using grass during parturition.
The developed countries have been at the forefront in applying preventive techniques to
eradicate tetanus. The programmes of immunizing babies and proper post-exposure prophylaxis
have reduced the cases of disease in high-income countries such as UK and USA. The rate of
mortality from tetanus still ranges between 10% and 80% even though the disease is preventable
(Thwaites and Loan 70). Pregnant mothers should also receive tetanus vaccine so that they
transfer the antibody across the placenta to protect the neonates. A programme by WHO in an
attempt to eliminate neonatal tetanus through vaccination of mothers all over the world has led to
a reduction of the incident to 58000 cases per year (Thwaites and Loan 71). However, there must
be an adequate investment to maintain the vaccination against tetanus across the globe. Failure to
eradicate tetanus increases the risk of HIV and malaria attacks in the affected places.
How the article correlates with the textbook
The textbook ‘An Introduction to Community & Public Health’ discusses the current trends and
statistics in the healthcare of any community. The first chapter of the book narrates a brief
history of community and public health and explains some of the techniques that people used in
ancient ages to treat common diseases. The article by Thwaites and Loan also narrates the
traditional method of carrying out birth practices like cutting the cord with grass. The textbook is
full of statistical data reporting on the prevalence of common diseases that affects communities.
The article in the journal also provides comprehensive data on the number of patients who
receives tetanus vaccines across the world. According to Thwaites and Loan, 96 percent of
children in developed countries receive the tetanus vaccine (73). They also note that only 72
percent of children in Africa receive the recommended fundamental course (Thwaites and Loan