Final Fresh Order

Running Head: FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
Food Security Strategies: A Comparative Study of Dadaab Gihembe and Nyarugusu Refugee
Camps
Name of Student
[Name of the Institution]
[Submission Date]
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIE ii
Table of content
CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 1
BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH ....................................................................................................................................... 1
AIM OF THE RESEARCH .................................................................................................................................................... 2
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................................... 2
RESEARCH QUESTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH ............................................................................................................................................. 3
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .............................................................................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 02: LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................................................................... 6
ANALYSIS ON FOOD SECURITY ........................................................................................................................................... 6
SCHOLARLY DISCUSSION ON FOOD SECURITY OF THE REFUGEE CAMPS ...................................................................................... 9
IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD SECURITY BY MARKETIZATION AS A SOCIAL CHANGE ............................................................................ 9
THE FOOD SYSTEMS IN THE REFUGEE CAMPS ..................................................................................................................... 11
THE CONDITIONS FOR AGRICULTURE ................................................................................................................................ 12
TYPE OF FOOD, AND CONDITIONS OF PREPARATION AND CONSUMPTION OF FOOD ..................................................................... 13
CHRONIC MALNUTRITION AS A SYSTEMIC PROBLEM ............................................................................................................ 14
ETHNOGRAPHIC PERSPECTIVE ......................................................................................................................................... 17
CHAPTER 03: METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................................. 19
GENERAL PREVIEW ....................................................................................................................................................... 19
QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION ................................................................................................................................... 20
QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION ..................................................................................................................................... 22
ANALYSIS OF BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE EVIDENCE ............................................................................................ 23
TRIANGULATION AND REGRESSION .................................................................................................................................. 28
LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................ 30
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 31
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................................... 32
CHAPTER 04: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................. 33
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY IN DADAAB REFUGEE CAMP ....................................................................................................... 33
Demographic Information, Programs, and Partners .......................................................................................... 33
Food Aid Programs for the Refugees .................................................................................................................. 33
Alternative to In-Kind Food Aid ......................................................................................................................... 38
BSFP Delivery Options and Complementary Food Provision ............................................................................ 40
Available Options for the Livelihood Interventions ............................................................................................ 41
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES FOR THE GIHEMBE CAMP IN RWANDA ....................................................................................... 42
The Basic Camp Information .............................................................................................................................. 42
WFP’s and UNHCR’s Food Aid Programs for the Refugees in Gihembe .......................................................... 42
Monthly Food Aid Calendar ............................................................................................................................... 44
Food Aid Outcomes among the Refugees in Gihembe ........................................................................................ 45
THE FOOD AID STRATEGIES AMONG THE NYARUGUSU REFUGEES .......................................................................................... 47
Factors hindering the food assistance to the Nyarugusu refugees...................................................................... 49
CHAPTER 05: CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................. 51
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIE iii
RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................................................................................... 54
REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................................... 57
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 1
CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Research
International organisations have kept an eye on the people’s food availability within the
country so that they are not left starved to death (Whitaker 2002, pp.339-358). In contrast to
predictions on the self-destruction of the regime due to the food shortages and the regime’s
failing to feed its own citizens, the regime is still thriving. When rejecting the prevalent
misconception about the refugee camps, which claims that the government was starving the
people as a choice of surviving the regime, Smith (2015) presented the clear evidence of
nutritional status improvement in the refugee camps. That is, if the government had let the
population starve to die either by appropriating the budget for militarization instead of importing
food or by diverting food aid to prioritised groups, as has been widely presumed and criticised by
international media, the nutritional status in the country would have worsened (Werker 2007,
pp.461-480). The existing evidence does not uphold the claim that the refugee camps
government deliberately violates the population’s rights to food.
Contrary to expected by international community, the regime is still thriving, and the
people are not dying because of hunger. In this context, it is possible to assume that the state of
food security in the country has improved in some degree. Then, what explains this improvement
of the food situation? (Renzaho & Mellor 2010, pp.1-9) This paper will delve into the potential
factors explaining the alleviation of hunger problems in the refugee camps, which are
international food aid, marketisation, and government policy. The paper draws on entitlement
approach that people’s access to food depends on their entitlement to private assets and exchange
of them. Accordingly, the paper hypothesizes that the refugee camps people’s increased
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 2
privatization of their assets and involvement in exchange activities through marketisation have
advanced food security in the country (Misselhorn 2005, pp.33-43).
As a result of the analysis, the paper concludes that the combination of marketisation and
government policies to address food security was the most important contributing factor to the
improvement of food security in the refugee camps (Lischer 2015, pp. 25-36). In respect to
nomenclature, “food security” here follows the definition of Food and Agriculture Organisation
of the United Nations (FAO) from the State of Food Insecurity in the World 2001, citing “food
security [is] a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and
economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food
preferences for an active and healthy life”. The analysis will focus more on “food insecurity”
which is more related to structural factors, opposed to “transitory food insecurity” which is
mostly originated from natural disasters or economic collapse (Werker 2007, pp.461-480).
Aim of the Research
The main aim of the research is to investigate the role and effectiveness of contemporary
food security in refugee camps; the research will be focusing on the case study of Dadaab
Gihembe and Nyarugusu.
Research Objectives
The objectives of the research are:
To explore the major issue of food security in refugee camps.
To examine the range of approaches to food security by actors in camps.
To analyse the effectiveness of food security strategies in needs and sustainability.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 3
To provide recommendations on future approaches to food security for refugee camps.
Research Question
The main research question is:
Q1: What are the most important parts of a sustainable refugee camps food system that impact
food security?
Q2: Which identified community-level risk and community-level protective factors are
predictive of food security rates in refugee camps?
Q3: What significant differences in community-level risk and community-level protective factors
exist in refugee camps?
Purpose of the Research
The focus of this paper will be to analyze food security in refugee camp to examine
whether these camps are undergone “food insecurity” and with what degree the state of food
security has improved (Misselhorn 2005, pp.33-43). The concept of food security has evolved so
as to reflect a practical side. Even before the advent of the terminology ‘food security’, scholars
would focus on food availability or, food balance sheet in a country to assess the needs or
inadequacy of food at a national level. Upon Amartya Sen’s pioneering work on hunger and
deprivation, scholars started to pay attention to individuals’ physical and economic access to
food. (Lischer 2015, pp. 25-36)introduced the entitlement approach, in terms of physical and
economic access to food. The main idea of the approach is that poor people may be deprived of
food if the food price is too high and their wage is too low, even when the food supply at a
national level is sufficient to cover the population. The discussion on food security has expanded
more, given the recognition that the pattern of individual’s access to food is also different within
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 4
refugee camps, particularly in terms of age and gender (Jacobsen 2002, pp.95-123). Also,
depending on individual’s health status and metabolic characteristics, the necessary amount of
food per day for each individual is different. In this sense, utilisation of food has become the new
focus of analysis on food security. The 1996 World Food Summit adopted the definition of food
security, well reflecting all these aforementioned three domains of food security availability,
access, and utilisation. Jones et el. (2013) explained that the definition also included the fourth
dimension of food security, “stability of food security over time” (Lischer 2015, pp. 25-36).
Theoretical Framework
There are diverse ways to measure food security, depending on the purpose and available
data sources. As the paper aims to investigate the macro-level trends in the refugee camps’ food
security states, the paper will mostly refer to national-level food security estimates, among which
the prevalence of malnutrition in a country is the most widely used. As expounded in the below
section, the analysis is based on the measurement of food security in the refugee camps from as
diverse sources as available, including, but not limited to FAO/WFP’s food security and nutrition
surveys and Global Hunger Index by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). As
for the famine and chronic malnutrition in the refugee camps, Haggard, Noland, Natsios and
Smith have done the outstanding analyses.
(Jacobsen 2002, pp.577-596) ascribed its chronic malnutrition to a systemic problem,
which were the socialist economy and the failed economic and social policies of the government.
(Hadley & Sellen 2006, pp.369-375)argued that the refugee camp’s nutritional status has
improved because of the marketisation from below and emphasized the important roles of
individuals as agencies of change. The details of their arguments are followed in the literature
review section below. This paper will investigate three variables that seem to have affected the
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 5
nutritional status in the refugee camps marketisation, changes of government policy, and
foreign food aid (Gorton, Bullen & Mhurchu 2010, pp.1-29). As confirmed in the FAO
definition, food security is a long-term, developmental issue, rather than a short-term
humanitarian aid. In this sense, although humanitarian aid has admittedly played a significantly
important role in addressing food shortages, its role was not sufficient to allow the country stable
food security in the longer term.
Therefore, through utilising greater availability of information and accumulated research
about the country, the paper attempts to explore the state of food security in the refugee camps.
By doing so, the paper found that the degree of individual command over food resulting from
marketisation and a few government policies are important factors that have affected food
security of the country (Diken 2004, pp.83-106). To do so, the paper firstly investigates the
refugee camps general food system, including the conditions of agriculture industry, to
understand that the food self sufficiency is not a feasible option for the refugee camps. Secondly,
it briefly explains the Great Famine which engendered various coping behaviours that led to
marketisation and related government policies. Thirdly, the paper examines whether the state of
food security has improved or not since the Great Famine, focusing on food availability and
nutritional status in the country. Lastly, it explores the three factors international food aid,
marketisation, and governmental policies and their effects on food security in the refugee
camps.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 6
CHAPTER 02: LITERATURE REVIEW
Since its partial opening to outside, the refugee camps has been a research subject for
scholars from many study fields, including politics, economics, and public health. Depending on
scholars’ perspectives and interests, there are diversified interpretations on one event or
phenomenon. Likewise, there are many different explanations on the refugee camps food
security. Therefore, in this section, the paper looks at existing discussions on the refugee camps
food security whether it has improved or not and the explanatory variables that the scholars
assume have affected food security in the country (Muro & Aurino 2011). As a starting point, it
will briefly discuss the approaches to measure food security to appreciate the reasoning of
scholars’ inconsistent understandings on food security in the refugee camps.
Analysis on Food Security
A great deal of scholars, organisations, and study fields have investigated the food
security issue, including chronic and acute malnutrition and famine. Accordingly, varied
approaches have been developed and applied to the food security studies. Burchi and De Muro
(2012) explained five main approaches to food security from the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) working paper, which are food availability, income-based, basic-needs, the
entitlement approach, and sustainable livelihood (Cronin 2008, pp.1-13.). The most important
approach this paper takes will be the entitlement approach, which will be applied to the analysis
of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (refugee camps)’s nutritional status studies. The
entitlement approach focuses on the endowment entitlement that is given to individuals (e.g.
assets and labour), and exchange entitlement through which individuals can access to food. The
paper applies the entitlement approach to the refugee camps food security analysis, assuming that
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 7
individuals in the country have become to be more entitled to both endowment and exchange,
through marketisation and government policies incorporating elements of market economies.
The caveat is that the five approaches are not mutually exclusive (Clay 2002, pp. 25-32).
Although the entitlement accompanied by capability approach will be the main approach for this
paper, the other emphasis for food security analysis are more or less interconnected and affect
each other. The food availability approach, which is also called the Malthus approach, is
indispensable in food security analysis (Choi & Koo 2009, pp.75-134). It focuses on the
relationship between food availability and population, following Malthus’s principle of
population. The essential point of the approach is that if the growth rate of agricultural
production is lower than the growth rate of the population, people will suffer from hunger and
eventually starvation. Therefore, the analytic focus is the aggregate food availability of nations.
Many studies of the refugee camps hunger and famine issue were carried out with this approach
because it seemed obvious that the famine was due to the government’s insistence on a
quasiclosed, self-sufficient economy despite the lack of aggregate food availability (Jones 2013,
pp.481-505). The entitlement approach, on which this paper’s analysis will be based, focuses on
“each person’s entitlements to commodity bundles including food”. The entitlement can be
divided into two categories, which are personal endowments and exchange entitlements. A
person is entitled to his or her assets including house, land, and livestock, and non-tangible goods
such as labour. Exchange entitlement is “the set of commodities that the person can have access
to through trade and production” (Haggard & Noland 2011, pp. 15-62).
People can consume food - or be entitled to food either through producing their own
using personal endowments such as land and labour or through trading food with other
commodities produced by their labour. In line with this approach, especially exchange
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 8
entitlement, the paper assumes that the refugee camps people’s increased exchange entitlement
that was made possible by marketisation has contributed to food security in the country. (Yoon
2009, pp.43-73) described more clearly the concepts required to investigate to diagnose the state
of food security. They suggested four concepts be distinguished to make sure that all people in a
country have command over an adequate amount of food and are in adequate nutritional status.
The four concepts are 1) being self-sufficient in food, 2) food availability, 3) food entitlement,
and 4) nutritional capability. The four concepts are intertwined with each other, showing a causal
relationship (Burchi & De 2012, pp. 41-98). They make clear that the recognition on the
distinctiveness of the four concepts and the gaps among them are crucial in combating hunger. In
the case of the refugee camps, food self-sufficiency was not achievable. In addition to this, the
lack of foreign currencies coming from exports made the food availability in the country
inadequate given that they were not able to import enough amount of food. Accordingly, the
absolute amount of food available within the country was far less than required for feeding the
population, which made the refugee camps citizens entitled to meager amount of food rations.
The insufficient entitlement to food led to prevalent malnutrition (Jones 2013, pp.481-
505). The paper analyzes the linkages and relationships among those four concepts in the refugee
camps case; meanwhile, it pays more attention to food entitlement and nutritional capability,
presuming that the conditions for food self-sufficiency and food availability within the country
was not as impactful as conditions for entitlement marketisation and governmental policies.
In relation to the entitlement and capabilities approach, Sen deepened the ideas while stressing
that capabilities have an important aspect: freedom. Freedom plays a critical role in being able to
have capabilities to consume the amount of given resources. Freedom not only has its intrinsic
value that individuals enjoy, but also is instrumental to expanding opportunities and enhancing
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES 9
capabilities. Again, related to exchange entitlement, the individuals in the refugee camps have
become able to whether legally or illegally be involved in market activities more freely since
the onset of the Great Famine, albeit still limited. In line with all the concepts elaborated above,
Sen also emphasized the role of “agency (Cronin 2008, pp.1-13.).”
Scholarly Discussion on Food Security of the Refugee Camps
As for the refugee camps hunger problems, many scholars studied the refugee camps
case, among which Haggard and Noland, Natsios, and Smith are leading. (Jones 2013, pp.481-
505)pointed out that the government policies trying to control markets made the functions of
markets crippled, thus leading to chronic food insecurity in the country. (Yoon 2009, pp.43-
73)also articulated that the government policies against marketisation especially currency
reforms aggravated people’s vulnerability to food shortages. In contrast, (Haggard & Noland
2011, pp. 15-62)emphasized that food situation in the country were enhanced throughout the last
15 years thanks to marketisation and the government’s priority to address food security – with
some unintended side effects, including regional inequalities.
Improvement in Food Security by Marketization as a Social Change
(Whitaker 2002, pp.339-358)put emphasis on individuals as agents of change. In this
context, she argued that the refugee camps has gone through irreversible social change induced
by individuals, which was different from policy changes that (Renzaho & Mellor 2010, pp.1-
9)claim have been the dominant factors exacerbating food security in the country. In other
words, she emphasized that social change was not the same as policy change, and the refugee
camps nutritional status after the great famine had improved partly because of marketisation,
which was the social change from below, and partly because of the government’s intervention to
address food security, especially targeting children. However, she also pointed out that the
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
10
outcome had not been even among the population. The income earnings and the amount of food
rations were dependent on occupations, regions, and gender(Misselhorn 2005, pp.33-43). Her
arguments that marketisation is an irrevocable social change which led to improvement in
nutritional status in the refugee camps are in line with this paper’s main argument that
marketisation is one important pillar explaining improved food security in the refugee camps,
along with government policies.
As the preceding prominent scholars expounded, there are various discussions and
interpretations on the refugee camps nutritional status and the fundamental factors affecting it.
Haggard, Noland, and Natsios claimed that marketisation failed to fix hunger problems in the
country because of the government’s policies that tried to keep control of its food markets. On
the contrary, (Lischer 2015, pp. 25-36)argued that although the effect was unequal across the
regions and demographic characteristics such as age and gender, the overall improved nutrition
was achieved through the government’s intervention under the perception that children must be
nourished, as well as through marketisation with which people had more access to food. As for
assessing the state of food security indicated by nutritional status, while Haggard, Noland, and
Natsios focused on the fact that the refugee camps has been chronically malnourished, Smith
centered more on the improvement of nutritional status in the country despite the fact that it is
still widely undernourished and thus requires more humanitarian food aid. This difference in
perspectives evaluating the state of food security led to different interpretations of the impact of
food security factors among scholars. (Jacobsen 2002, pp.95-123)
With respect to the interpretation of food security in the country, the paper primarily
follows Smith’s perspectives that food security in the refugee camps has been improving to some
extent. The paper further develops the argument that increased individual command over food
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
11
through marketisation and the government policy favourable to addressing food security have
been critical factors promoting nutritional status in the refugee camps(Lischer 2015, pp. 25-36).
Even though the population has been chronically malnourished, if the nutritional status in fact
has progressed, there may have been some important causative factors. The three variables this
paper focuses on international aid, marketisation, and government policies explain to some
degree why the state of food security in the country has advanced over time(Jacobsen 2002,
pp.95-123). Therefore, this paper fundamentally investigates all the arguments of
aforementioned scholars to answer the question of whether the nutritional status in the refugee
camps has improved or not since the Great Famine of the mid-1990s and which factors have
affected it the most. As a result of the analysis, this paper asserts that marketisation and
government policies calibrated to address hunger problems have been conducive to reinforcing
food security in the country.
The Food Systems in the Refugee Camps
The refugee camps had insisted on being food self-sufficient, before going through the
Great Famine. Even after the Great Famine, although the government did not hold on to self-
sufficiency in food anymore, it still put a high priority in agriculture industries. In this section,
the paper probes the general agricultural conditions and food distribution systems in the country
to understand why the country is not capable of being self-sufficient in food and how the country
has evolved the policies to raise agricultural productivities(Misselhorn 2005, pp.33-43). This
comprehension on the general background of the agricultural system in the country will
strengthen the understanding of why the government’s policies to reconstruct a part of the
system, such as farmers’ cooperatives, helped food security in the country.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
12
The Conditions for Agriculture
To maintain the regime without threat or interruption from outside, the government
sought to be self-sufficient in food availability. Because of this reason, the government highly
emphasized the agricultural industry and operated it through well-established farmers’
cooperative systems and the Public Distribution System (PDS) (Lischer 2015, pp. 25-36).
However, food self-sufficiency was not achievable, mostly because of the environmental
conditions of agriculture; the country has an inadequate amount of arable land compared to the
population size . Specifically, (Burchi & De 2012, pp. 41-98)explained that almost 80 percent of
the country’s land was mountainous area, which was not adequate for cultivation. Therefore, it
has a limitation restricting the expansion of farming lands. Also, in terms of weather, it has an
insufficient growing season. The winter is long and the summer is short and rainy. Droughts are
frequent occurrences in spring, winter, and autumn. The unfavourable environmental conditions
for agriculture led the country to adopt the input-intensive agricultural production, by which it
employed a high amount of chemical fertilizers and an irrigation system operated by a large
amount of electricity(Yoon 2009, pp.43-73). Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the refugee
camps could import fertilizers and oil for electricity for very low-prices, or sometimes receiving
a government grant. Some scholars consider this relationship and the collapse of the Soviet
Union as the principal reason for economic downturn, and thus, the Great Famine of the refugee
camps. As the Soviet Union fell down and was no longer able to provide necessary input on
agriculture to the refugee camps, the agricultural system in the refugee camps also nearly
collapsed.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
13
Type of food, and conditions of preparation and consumption of food
Food security depends on the availability and access to food, but also on the type of diet
and hygiene practices in the preparation and consumption of foods related to gastrointestinal
diseases that affect the ability to take advantage of nutrients. The families referred to in this
study have a poor diet and little variety. They make two or three meals a day, depending on the
availability of food and the workload(Burchi & De 2012, pp. 41-98).
The main source of animal protein is the egg, which is consumed two or three times a
week, usually fried in oil. The chicken is consumed once a week or less, in small quantities and
cooked in broth. Beef and pork are consumed at most once a month, sometimes every two or
three months, when several families organise to buy a standing animal. The poorest families only
have access to these foods during collective celebrations. (Alkire 2011, pp. 12-21)Highlights the
growing use of industrial food, in particular canned sauce and instant pasta soup, in addition to
soft drinks, fried foods and sweets. The consumption of these products represents an important
part of the expenditure on food, although they are often not accounted for. These are currently
the main "social" meals that families seek to have available when they receive visitors.
In the absence of sufficient and varied food hygiene conditions are added that
compromise the absorption of nutrients(Burchi & De 2012, pp. 41-98). These conditions are
determined mainly by the lack of drinking water and the poor quality of the river water, from
which many of the families are supplied. The water for human use is boiled in wood stoves. All
food is prepared in kitchens with floor, partially fenced with fencing poles where different live
pets - mostly dogs and chickens - . All foods are consumed cooked, boiled or fried, with the
exception of fruits.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
14
In all cases, women are responsible for the preparation of food, work in which they spend
much of their days. Among these is the preparation of the tortilla, the basis of the diet, which
involves cutting the corn, boiling it, grinding it by hand, making the dough and throwing the
tortilla. The carrying of water and firewood is one of the most tiring parts of these activities; In
some homes, men "help" in the carrying of firewood, but this is rare(Haggard & Noland 2011,
pp. 15-62). The heaviest tasks are usually performed by women with lower household status, a
position occupied by younger daughters-in-law.
Chronic Malnutrition as a Systemic Problem
(Choi & Koo 2009, pp.75-134)are consistent with (Haggard & Noland 2011, pp. 15-
62)argument that chronic malnutrition is a systemic problem, beyond the aggregate food
availability. According to them, the Great Famine and ongoing food problems in the refugee
camps are systemic; the authoritarian government did not offer adequate accountability to its
citizens, and denied “political and civil liberties and property rights”. The food shortage
problems could have not deepened and widened if the population enjoyed a freedom to be
involved in private production and trading of food.
While (Haggard & Noland 2011, pp. 15-62)took note of the emergence of marketisation
as a coping mechanism through which the people struck by famine strove to survive, they argued
that the marketisation was only to become a new source of vulnerability due to unsophisticated,
vacillating government policies. In other words, they attributed the root cause of food insecurity
in the country to its economic and political system of Socialism under which the government
tried to curb free economic transactions among people. In their 2011 book delving into political,
economic, and social changes inside the refugee camps based on refugee surveys, (Haggard &
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
15
Noland 2011, pp. 15-62)confirmed the active operation of market economies; however, the
government’s struggle to maintain the control over economic activities limited the scope of
market economies’ effects, a large portion of the population not being able to enjoy the benefits,
particularly those who were involved in illegal market activities and mostly the poorest.
Since the Great Famine, people have struggled to survive, forcing them to perform then
illegal activities including bartering, selling belongings, and buying food. These coping
behaviours increased the absolute number of operating markets, both official farmers’ markets
and informal ones. The government had to tolerate it due to the breakdown of the Public
Distribution System (PDS). (Haggard & Noland 2011, pp. 15-62)considered it imperative for
foreign exchange earnings to be increased so as to import the needed amount of food in a
commercial basis to end the food insecurity in the refugee camps. Resting upon Dreze and Sen’s
four distinct but interrelated concepts, Haggard and Noland diagnosed the fundamental cause of
food insecurity in the refugee camps. The climatic and topographical conditions in the refugee
camps are not suitable to be self-sufficient in food. The country has failed to meet the nutritional
needs of all nationals through importing food, which is a means of increasing food availability.
Moreover, the breakdown of the PDS led to the entitlement failure, resulting in people
neither having access to food being distributed by the government nor having enough money or
assets to buy food in a market. The failures in the above three concepts being food self-
sufficient, food availability, and entitlement naturally led to limiting people’s nutritional
capabilities. In this context, especially focusing on the second concept of increasing food
availability, they asserted that industrial development was required for the success of economic
reforms as well as long-term food security(Yoon 2009, pp.43-73). Industrial development would
bring about the expansion of foreign exchange earnings, and people, especially urban workers,
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
16
would have more ability to purchase food in markets. (Yoon 2009, pp.43-73)opinions regarding
the status of food security in the refugee camps were apparent; the country had had to endure
chronic malnutrition, meaning that their nutritional status had not improved. The marketisation
had worked in a limited scope, and the government’s unsophisticated economic reform in 2002
led to the worsening of food security by causing intolerable inflation and making people more
vulnerable to food price changes.
Furthermore, the government policy in 2005, which aimed to rein the markets and revive
the PDS, demonstrated that not only did the government still want to control the food market but
also the actors in a market could not trust the market system, which may have impeded the
establishment of a normally and soundly operating market system. Intuitively, market economies
may not function properly under the perception that markets could be cracked down on soon by
the government as well as the expectation that currencies they are using may be of no use in the
near future. Haggard and Noland pointed out those concerns, by arguing that the institutional and
behavioural changes of individuals instigated by marketisation was achievable not thanks to the
government, but despite the government’s policies. (Haggard & Noland 2011, pp. 15-62) also
blamed the government’s policies for the chronic food problem in the refugee camps, explaining
it with three economic shocks: The Great Famine in the mid-1990s, the July 2002 economic
reform, and the November 2009 currency reform. The breakdown of the Public Distribution
System (PDS) precipitated the Great Famine, which led to the advancement of farmers’ markets.
(Burchi & De 2012, pp. 41-98)described that from 1999 to 2009 the farmers’ markets in fact
replaced the PDS as a leading mechanism of the refugee camps population’s access to food. In
this situation, the government’s 2002 reforms that engendered high inflation and 2009 currency
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
17
reforms and other policies banning commercial markets eventually led the country to keep
suffering from food problems.
In spite of the aspects that negatively affected the growth of market economies, the paper
tries to give more attention to the fact that the government allowed markets to expand, albeit
grudgingly, permitted some extent of private production for farmers, and appeared to bring about
some measures to address food security of vulnerable groups, such as children(Alkire 2011, pp.
12-21).
Ethnographic Perspective
This study shows some of the situations shared by many of the poorest rural families. In
it we can identify multiple factors of vulnerability, but also some of the actions and daily
decisions through which these people seek ways to get ahead, building their own life projects.
This text seeks to reflect on the conditions of vulnerability and the agency capacities of
one of the most impoverished sectors, the landless peasants, delimiting the discussion to the area
of food security. At a global level, it is estimated that at least 795 million people face food
shortages. Mexico has one of the highest energy availability indexes in the world, but according
to the latest available data (corresponding to 2014), 20.6% of the population lived in "food
poverty" and 42.4% faced some degree of " food insecurity(Haggard & Noland 2011, pp. 15-62)
"
The concept of "food security" began to be used in the international arena in the 1970s,
since then its definition has incorporated an increasing complexity. This work takes up the
definition proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO),
usually used as a reference in political and academic areas. It is considered then that there is food
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
18
security when all people have at all times physical, social and economic access to sufficient safe
and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences in order to lead an active and
healthy life (1996 World Food Summit ).
FAO has proposed analyzing food security from four dimensions - availability, access,
utilisation and stability (Yoon 2009, pp.43-73)- , which are monitored through a series of
statistical indicators at the national level . This methodology allows us to make a general idea,
make comparisons between countries, identify trends and locate particularly vulnerable regions.
However, the indicators used leave aside many relevant factors 5 and in many cases the
corresponding data do not exist.
The present work analyzes these dimensions from an ethnographic perspective , starting
from the conceptual framework of human development and capabilities. This methodology
allows us to explore, in a specific empirical reality, the structural aspects that define the subjects'
options in a specific context, but also their perceptions about food and the ways in which they
seek to get ahead day by day; elements that allow us to improve the understanding of this
phenomenon in its complexity. In addition to its analytical relevance, it is proposed that this type
of analysis is relevant for the design of policies and projects that promote local livelihood
strategies and pay for capacity building - individual and collective - taking into account the
particularities of the contexts of intervention.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
19
CHAPTER 03: METHODOLOGY
General Preview
The research study aims to investigate the food security specifically the distribution
method, the international strategic food network and the possible challenges in Daadab, Gihembe,
and Nyarugusu refugee camps. The mission incorporates the donor representatives and the
distribution networks from both the local government and the international communities.
Therefore, this chapter aims to presents the various techniques employed in the collection and
analysis of the data. There are various research techniques employed for the study including the
positivist secondary mixed method that focuses on the desk-based research and critical analysis.
The researcher employed both the qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to analyze
the food insecurity among the three refugee camps. Such methods include interviews, survey, and
questionnaire to obtain the reliable data for the study. Moreover, the secondary data sources were
also employed to make a comparison with collected data to check on the credibility and reliability
of the data set obtained from the authorities in charge of the refugees.
The research commenced with an intensive review of the available secondary data sources
and documentation of the past research studies on the same topic to come up with the best approach
to accomplish the mission. First, the researcher had to liars with the various institutions dealing
with food security and donation services. Some of these documents were obtained from the WEP,
UNHCR and the GOK to analyze the food security strategic approach in Daadab Refugee Camp
in Kenya. In addition, the secondary sources outlined the various food security strategies among
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
20
the three capms. A review of the chosen data collection tools was necessary to ascertain their
relevance to meet the set objective in the three camps.
Based on the research technique, the desk study, the researcher solely depended on the
secondary data to build on the study requirements. The aim of the research exercise was to come
up with a qualitative and quantitative data focusing on the current food provision network among
the three camps and the intervention from the international communities. The secondary data
obtained captured the various observations, semi-structured and structured interview sessions with
the refugees and the international bodies, key informant interviews to address specific questions
and focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted by different groups including the FEM. After
gathering the relevant information for the study, the researcher engaged in a plenary session that
incorporates the technical management strategy to keep the study within the set objectives. It
involves the interrogation of the possible emerging trends within the research boundary to facilitate
tentative recommendations. In addition, the plenary session also plays a critical role in the data
verification and validation to ensure that the information obtained is relevant to the set purpose. It
assists in the verification of the data sets to ensure that they comply and triangulate the existing
documents.
Quantitative Data Collection
It involved some field activities including the household surveys based on the standardized
questionnaire designed to address the key concerns. The quantitative study technique relied on the
past interviews and survey studies contained in the published sources to derive the strategic
measures for ensuring food security among the camps. These concerns include food consumptions
among the residents, the mobility of the camp residents and construction indicators at the
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
21
household level. The sample data design contains the various research objectives including the
approximation of the food demand among the three refugee camps. During the study, the sample
design analysis assured gave an error of 7% from the result obtained from the sample population.
In addition, the sample population also provided an implementation platform for the test results
obtained from the three different refugee camps. The sampled population was a representative of
the household composition and food demand, in addition to the distribution networks.
Some of the obstacles during the research study include the unavailability of reliable data
describing some of the fundamental principles of food distribution among the refugee camps due
to inaccessibility and unfavorable government policies. Ideally, some of the basic background
information for the analysis of the study objectives rely on the comparison among the different
variables to come up with a reliable ground of argument. Some of these variables include the target
population and the control groups dealing with the implementation of the food initiative programs
in consideration of the various indicators illustrating the various study areas. To overcome some
of these challenges, the researcher closely monitored the data collection techniques to evaluate the
credibility and the reliability of the obtained data sets. Some of the measures to achieve accurate
and reliable data include extensive quantitative survey exercise and semi-structured personal
interviews involving the focus group discussion activities. In addition, there is a need to working
on some of the survey databases to settle on the pattern of the research analysis followed by a
validated quantitative evidence. The primary focus of the research exercise involves desk reviews
incorporated by the direct camp observations and the distribution channels that enhance the food
security strategies. There are some technicalities involved in handling a large data set including
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
22
making a concrete comparison among the policies guiding the food supply network by both the
international communities and donors.
Qualitative Data Collection
During the research study, the researcher relied on the personal interviews incorporation
with the focus group discussions (FGDs) that target the same area of interest together with the
survey questionnaires. The selection of the interviewees together with the FGDs participants was
random to ascertain a fair representation of the target population. The participants comprised of
both males and females of various age groups among the residents in the refugee camps. Other
random population samples were also possible among the focus groups and the government
agencies dealing with the food supply programs. More specifically, the research focused on the
contribution of the international communities towards ensuring food security among the three
refugee camps. The selection criteria for coming up with a reliable data incorporated the UNHCR
progress database that provided the concrete information on the aerial maps that describe the
location and the accessibility of the three camps. To prevent data loss, the survey operations were
accomplished through a PDA machines that facilitate data security.
The qualitative data collection approach is reliable for the understanding of the systems of
food subside and distribution network as well as the best practices employed. In addition to that,
it gives a detailed information about the household structures and their impact on the food security
among the camps. Another advantage for the qualitative data collection and analysis technique is
cost effective due to the possibility of sharing resources. The data collection exercise was based
on the desk study reviews and preliminary findings from various field research exercise. Both
quantitative and qualitative data collection technique employed in the research study relied majorly
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
23
on the secondary data from the previous research activities. There was a comparison among the
various distribution channels to help in addressing the challenges relating to the whole exercise.
In addition, the local authorities also had a critical part to play in providing security within the
camps to ensure the safety of the distribution team and the camp residents. Another main concern
was the possible fraud attempts by the distribution team that would compromise the reliability of
the whole exercise. Therefore, the researcher had to compare the published information and the
present situation broadcast over the televisions or obtained from internet.
Analysis of both Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence
The researcher’s view presents an impact analysis program through the desk study that
responds to the set study questions. Some of the fundamental questions that form the pillar for the
discussion include whether the food security strategic program achieved the set objectives in
solving the food insecurity in the three refugee camps. The desk study investigated the cause of
food insecurity and the existing measures to improve the situation. The quantitative data
expounded on the effect of the food aids from international communities and donors to the levels
of food consumption and the severity adopted by the existing population. Reaching out to the
various households was a means to identify the level of emergency food demand among the
vulnerable population within the refugee camps including children and women. To come up with
a reliable data exposing the relationship between the food demand and the distribution channels,
the researcher combined both the qualitative and the quantitative evidence to build on the claims.
While handling the quantitative evidence, the team of researchers captured beyond the
descriptive statistics and addressed the interrelations together with the relevant survey database
that tackle the same issue of food strategy. Then the qualitative content was analyzed to define the
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
24
relationship of the food security programs among the three refugee camps. The qualitative data
expressed the camp capacity, the food demand level, and the various channels employed to realize
a reliable food relief programs from the international communities. Qualitative data also provided
a contextual evidence to the statistically significant variables that define the relationship of the
strategic food programs among the three camps. The data obtained from the mixed study
techniques are the basis for comparing the reliability of the secondary materials obtained from the
National Statistical Officer such as the CBS showing the food demand among the three refugee
camps. Other sources for the study also include the government published materials that contain
the food security programs for the refugees. Some of these resources were obtained online through
the government databases while others came from the published documents.
The desk study methodology relied on the data obtained by other different agencies
including the UN organization that conducted the 2013 JAM. The relevant data for the study are
available in the various organizations including the WFP, UNHCR and the UNICEF. In addition,
the data for the Nyarugusu camp in Tanzania are available with the government agencies and other
implementation partners. The same case was also applicable with the government of Rwanda while
studying about the food security in Gihembe refugee camp. Kenya was not an exemption as the
government and NGOs including the donor communities were responsible for the food security
strategies for the refugees. The development partners such as the international communities were
among the participants in the research study. The research team partnered with the relevant
agencies to compile a report on the research objective concerning the relevant materials obtained
from the participants in the mixed research study incorporating both the qualitative and the
quantitative techniques. There was an intensive online and library research to find the relevant
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
25
secondary sources that facilitated drawing a conclusion about the differences in the food security
strategies among the three camps. Other than the above-discussed sources, other materials for the
research study include the nutrition survey data and the AGDM report concerning the food security
in the Nyarugusu camp in 2012. There were also relevant materials from the IP briefing reports
delivered in 2014 addressing the challenges facing the food security programs among the refugee
camps. Data from the camp profiles was used to build on the available documents obtained from
the previous research works.
After obtaining the relevant research data, the researcher compiled and analyzed the
information incorporation with the following activities. First was to review and analyze the
relevant studies and reports from the previous research works to obtain the relevant information.
Other activities include the field visits to the three camps and group interviews with the refugees,
and other relevant stakeholders serving under the food security and implementation programs. The
compilation of the secondary data conformed with the resource materials obtained from different
entities including the local, regional authorities and other bodies such as NGOs working close to
ensure food security among the refugee camps. Some of the thematic areas incorporated in the
study during the data collection include food security and coping techniques, health and nutrition
that relate to the issue of food security. The implementation strategies were also part of the data
collection plan with numerous secondary sources elaborating on the various mechanism employed
in ensuring sufficient food supply among the refugee camps. There was a thorough mainstreaming
of the available data sources to obtain reliable information to support the research topic.
The mixed study design for the analysis of the food security among the Gihembe camp in
Rwanda, Dadaab in Kenya and Nyarugusu in Tanzania had a distinct population sampling as
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
26
follows. The survey targeted some households including the registered and non-registered
residents. Such comparison enabled the research team to arrive at a reliable research error that
presents a clear outcome among the target population. The data and sample population below
outlines the information from the published research studies from different companies.
Location
Target
Population
Population size
(No.
households)
Sample Size
(No.
households)
Percentage
Error
(+/-)
Dadaab Kenya
Refugees with
the full ration of
the general food
distribution
2060
200
6.5
Recipients with
half ration of the
food distribution
2200
200
6.5
Recipients
where the
distribution
relies on
vulnerability
3450
200
6.5
Gihembe
Rwanda
Refugees with
the full ration of
the general food
distribution
2010
200
6.0
Recipients with
half ration of the
food distribution
2430
200
6.0
Recipients
where the
distribution
relies on
vulnerability
3160
200
6.0
Nyarugusu Tz
Refugees with
the full ration of
the general food
distribution
2100
200
6.4
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
27
Recipients with
half ration of the
food distribution
2364
200
6.4
Recipients
where the
distribution
relies on
vulnerability
3430
200
6.4
The table outlines the various considerations for the distribution operations among the three
camps. The food aid distribution and the sample population presents a comparison of the Dadaab,
Gihembe, and Nyarugusu refugee camps. In addition to the above samples, other participants for
the study include the government agencies and the NGOs working closely with the UNHCR to
meet the food demand by the refugees. These participants filled the questionnaire and engaged in
interview sessions designed to establish the trend of food security about the household capacity. It
was clear that majority of the camp residents were those vulnerable to food aid programs.
Therefore, the UNHCR worked closely with other agencies and the local governments to support
the supply chain.
The secondary data analysis involved the factorial techniques in conjunction with the
population groups and the subgroups that address the issues affecting the households’ food
demand. The employed data techniques were supported by the factorial analysis, automatic
classifications and the regression approaches. The factorial analysis provided the graphical
presentation of the various food supply channels among the three refugee camps. Supporting the
desk study techniques required a clear and reliable data analysis that would help extract the
relevant information from the secondary sources. Factorial analysis is key to the field study among
the three camps as it presents a clear evidence on the various channels employed by the UNHCR
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
28
in the implementation of the food program initiative. During the analysis, the Dadaab households
were grouped according to their source of livelihood to determine the urgency of food aid. The
same consideration was evidential in Gihembe and Nyarugusu where the refugees relied on the
food aids. Grouping was necessary to determine whether the sample household was a food aid.
Triangulation and Regression
Triangulation analysis was another technique employed to verify and sort out the secondary
data. It facilitated the quantification of the indicators and other variables for measuring the
demographic and socioeconomic impact on food security among the three refugee camps. The
employed automatic triangulation models enhanced the forward and backward algorithms. It also
allowed for the isolation and the quantification of the effect of the variables on the food aid
programs for the refugees. For the above indicators addressing the areas of interest in the
evaluation in Dadaab, Gihembe, and Nyarugusu, the regression model provided a basis for gauging
the variables describing the food aids given to the households. The algorithms were best applicable
in defining the fit model that combines both the relevant variables and the indicators. The table
below outlines the various indicator variables used for the analysis and their impact on the indicator
obtained values. The analysis provided a concrete ground to justify the obtained primary data from
field analysis and the published secondary sources from various agencies.
Various indicators define some of the target areas for evaluation as described by the basic
triangulation variables. The first indicator was the rate of food consumption outlined by the
Household Dietary Score (HDDS). The variables under the HDDS include the household type
defined by the population group. Food security among the refugee camps does not only relate to
the aid programs but also the relevant levels of the HDDS. The lower to the upper levels
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
29
incorporate the following, first is the unregistered members in the makeshift camp that include
those households who do not form part of the food aid record. This group is the main component
of the three camps that is need of emergency food aid programs. The unregistered members are
those from the Dadaab, Gihembe and the Nyarugusu refugee camps and are in need of food aid.
The secondary data from the desk study also revealed that the unregistered refugees living in these
camps stand a better level according to the HDDS standards.
There is also the coping strategies index (CSI) for the food security that outlines the
registration status of the target group. In addition, it also outlines the factors affecting the food
security index among the various households. Other than the registration status, the CSI employed
for the study also tackled the wealth score that impacts on the food security. It was also evidenced
that the large family sizes led to high risks of food insecurity cases and the more severe plans
adopted by the UNHCR. Moreover, the earning capacity was also a primary contributor to the food
security strategies employed in the refugee camps. Through the regression analysis, the data sets
displayed a clear outline for the food security strategies by the international communities and the
interest groups. Matching the secondary data and the field study results was a better means to
determine the relevant tools and mechanism to employ in ensuring the food security among the
three camps. The regression analysis enhanced a comparative analysis of the strategic food
measure among the three camps. Such measures were presented among the variables used for the
study. Some of the primary data were those from the household respondents and the international
communities such as the NGOs. Building on the study activities included the microenterprise that
some of the household members engaged in to meet their daily expenses.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
30
The protection indicator is another variable employed to investigate and determine the
relationship between the food security and the distribution channels among the three refugee
camps. Under the same scenario, various regression parameters such as the wealth score and the
location identity define the household capacity and the emergence of the food demand. According
to the marital status of the HHH members, any window or divorced women had low chances of
maintaining the protection levels. The same regression criteria also justified the essence of the
other parameters such as the mobility indicator that define the registration status of an individual
within the household set up and the impact of the marital status among the residents. The research
team had to incorporate some of these parameters to conclude the contribution from the
international communities towards the food aid programs for the refugees. Other variables were
those from the secondary data obtained from various government institutions and NGOs dealing
with the food management system. The obtained data from the secondary sources and the primary
mixed data collection techniques such as interviews and questionnaire formed the primary
foundation for the analysis of the stated objectives. Therefore, the analysis below, rely on the data
set obtained from the desk study individually published reports from the UNHCR.
Limitations of the Research Methodology
The data obtained from the available sources from various institutions did not contain
adequate information to support the research objectives. Majority of the published data were
limited to the past camps condition and did not cover some of the fundamental emerging issues
currently affecting the food security among the refugee camps. Alternatively, the secondary
sources from different agencies including the UNHCR needed thorough scrutiny to extract the
relevant information. Handling the large volumes of the published data is labor intensive and time-
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
31
consuming. Furthermore, the researcher had to make a comparison among the three refugee camps
with different information and managed by various agencies. There was a need to modify the
obtained secondary data through desk study to suit the current situations outlined through the
survey exercise through the interviews and questionnaires. The modification of the existing data
if not conducted accordingly may result in unnecessary data errors as it involves comparison
analysis. To validate the reliability of the secondary data, the research team had to conduct an
intensive field study to support the published information. Such activities involve field
investigations and verification of the available information to ascertain their credibility concerning
the research objectives. At some point, the overdependence on the secondary sources for the desk
study compromise the intensity of the research activity. Overdependence on the secondary sources
translates to neglecting some of the critical information that defines the barriers to food security
for the camps. It may also overlook the views from the camp residents concerning food demand
and the reliability of the distribution channels.
Ethical Considerations
Ethics are the guiding principles that address some of the arising issues that compromise
the rights and freedom of the participants and the stakeholders within the study area. Given that
the research study incorporates human participation, there is need to address some of the ethical
issues that may compromise the contribution of the sampled population. It is necessary to keep the
information about the personal life of the refugees as confidential and only accessible by the
authorized persons. Therefore, the primary role of the ethical consideration in the research study
is to protect the human participants form violation and any kind of harm. Ethics also guides the
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
32
research study to ensure that every activity consider the individual, group and society’s interest. It
also allows for the management of risks and preservation of the information from the research.
Some of the ethical issues considered in the research include the recognition of the
vulnerability of the refugees at the camps such as children and those living with disability. In
addition, the refugees are considered as those without legal status hence the research had to draw
boundaries on their social lives. To meet the ethical standards of the Research Ethics Board, the
study had to rely on the Coventry University Ethics System that outlines the various criteria for
collecting data among animals and human beings. Therefore, the information obtained from the
secondary and primary sources uphold to the ethical standards of research study. Such move was
to enhance harmony between the public and the target group, the refugees.
Conclusion
The desk study technique facilitated the realization of the situation problem and coming up
with the relevant dataset to build on the existing secondary information. The desk study technique
incorporation with the mixed research design creates on the set objectives by reaching out to every
associate in the food supply strategy and supplementation programs from donors. It also sorts to
expound on the challenges faced by the food management team within the refugee camps that
hinder their efficient and reliable operations. To address the food insecurity in the refugee camps,
the research narrowed Daadab, Nyarugusu, and Gihembe as the case study platforms. These camps
present unique features that enable an intensive comparison of the food security strategies. The
use of statistical survey technique provided the broader view on the study objective and facilitated
the realization of the set goals.
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
33
CHAPTER 04: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Food Security Strategy in Dadaab Refugee Camp
Demographic Information, Programs, and Partners
The secondary data from the UNHCR report reveals that the population in Dadaab is
356,985 by the end June 2014. The introduction of the biometric food systems enhanced the
implementation of the strategic food supplementation programs. According to the same report,
Dadaab has recorded a decrease in the population due to the reforms in the Kenyan government
policies. The graph below represents the population trend in the Dadaab refugee camp
Food Aid Programs for the Refugees
There are various food assistance channels for the refugees in the Dadaab camp including
the general food distribution (GFD), the blanket supplementary feeding programs and the targeted
curative programs. These programs facilitate the maintenance of adequate nutrition and food
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
34
security among the refugees (Olivius, 2014). The food aid programs are initiated through the WFP
in conjunction with the UNHCR that provides food for children under the age of 6-59 months who
are vulnerable to malnutrition. All these programs are vital in maintaining the food demand among
the refugees especially considering the issue of the encampment and other policies enacted by the
government of Kenya that restricts the movement of the refugees within the country. The table
below shows the analysis of various partners dealing with the food aid programs for Dadaab
refugee camp in Kenya.
Program
Partner
Ration Scale: g/p/d
Population fed
The general food
distribution (GFD)
CARE
NRC
Cereals-450
Pulse-70
Supercereal-45
Veg. Oil-40
Salt- 5
352,634
School Meals
Program (SMP)
CARE
INK
LWF
Super cereal- 85
Veg. Oil- 15
84,352
Blanket
supplementary
feeding programs
(BSFP) (6-23
months)
NRC
CARE
Super cereal- 220
19,261
SMP-Take Home
Rations
CARE
IRK
LWF
Sugar-500g monthly
35,162
Food for Training
(FFT)
NRC
Cereals-150
Pulse-50
Veg. Oil-15
Salt-5
853
Fresh Food Voucher
(FFV)
IRC
IRK
KRCS
DRC
Meat Voucher 900/=
Veg/fruit voucher
250/=
9,270
Pregnant and
Lactating Mothers
IRC
IRK
MSF
KRCS
Super cereal 200/=
Veg. Oil 15
19,726
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
35
Supplementary
feeding programs
(MAM) <5 years
IRK
IRC
MSF
KRCS
Plumpy
supplementary
95g/p/d
19,929
Supplementary
feeding programs
PLW MAM
IRC
MSF
KRCS
IRK
Super cereal 280/=
V/Oils 30
9,353
Outpatient
Therapeutic
Programs with the
curative for those >6
months to <5 years
(OTP) by the
UNHCR partners
IRC
MSF
IRK
KRCS
150 sachets per child
610
Care givers under the
therapeutic feeding
programs
IRC
MSF
IRC
IRK
Cereals- 450
Pulse-70
CSB+-50
Veg Oil-45
Salt-5
428
Hospital feeding
programs for the in
patients
IRC
MSF
IRK
KRCS
Cereals-450
Pulse-80
CSB+-50
Veg Oil-40
Salt-5
271
Special cases
including the HIV
and TB patients
MSF
IRC
IRK
KRCS
CSB+-150
Veg Oil-15
782
Food for the Assets
GRP
Cereals-400
Pulse-70
Veg Oil
Salt
32,200
According to the World Food Summit held in 1996, food security is the situation whereby
everyone can access food at all time to ensure the health and active living by taking account of the
nutritional impact of the dietary needs. The analysis of the food security in the Dadaab refugee
camp incorporates three pillars; food availability, food utilization, and food access. Therefore, the
food security situation in Dadaab refugee camp supports various assumptions that develop from
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
36
an intensive analysis of the entrance to food by the camp residents and any potential gap in the
delivery programs (Olivius, 2014). Secondly, the blanket supplementary programs from the BSFP
partners built of delivery modalities to ensure that the target population benefit from the food aid.
Other key sub-areas for the analysis include the complementary food aid for the refugees, and the
food assistance forms the transfer modality approaches including the cash and the vouchers. In
addition, there are also different livelihood opportunities that refugees practice including local
transportation and cleaning services.
The food assistance program from the WFP partners is the primary source of livelihood for
the refugees in Dadaab. However, the Kenyan Government policies compromise the livelihood
and the coping mechanisms among the refugees. These policies regulate the movement among the
refugees that expose majority to the harsh climatic conditions at the Dadaab camps that is majorly
hot temperatures throughout the year. The Dadaab camp is located in a semi-arid region that
compromises any engagement in a livelihood activity. The harsh climatic conditions also affect
the food production among the local communities that result in inflation in the market conditions
(Krause, 2014). With the location of the camps in the semi-arid and harsh environment, there are
high chances of insecurity cases among the locals who may attack the camp residents. Therefore,
the residents solely rely on the food aid programs from the WFP, GFD, SMP, SFP, FFT and the
FFA. Through the above channels, the WFP deliver 10,000 metric tons of various food
commodities to the Dadaab monthly. The food cycle distributions fall between the first and the
third weeks of every month where every household receives the food aid based on the groupings
discussed above. The refugees obtain the shipped food products at the Final Distribution Point
(FDPs), located at a strategic point in every camp. The Dadaab refugee camp has two primary food
FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES
37
supply points including the Dagahaley and the Hagadera where the residents assemble to get the
food products.
Other than the two camps in Dadaab, there are other new camps introduced within the same
region to enhance food distribution like the Ifo 2 and the Kambioos. Despite the strategic plans by
the WFP to ensure food safety among the points of collection, there are high chances of
contamination during the transportation of the food commodities from the point of the provision
to the individual households. The food quality may be compromised by the FDP corridors that
contain different contaminant and loose materials facilitating the risk of poisoning from the loose
soil particles containing the food (Mabiso, Maystadt, Vandercasteelen, & Hirvonen, 2014). In
addition, the state of the structures used as stores also expose the food products to high risk of
contaminants. Despite the various challenges facing the strategic food aid distribution, the
biometrics mechanism works reliably to ensure the full implementation of the food aid program
by the WFP. The WFP has made tremendous progress in the establishment of strategic food
distribution points for the refugees in Dadaab with an outstanding one being the Kmbioos
established in 2013. The UNHCR also initiated the establishment of a police post in Kambioos
camp