Healthcare Monitoring

IoT Healthcare Monitoring
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1. Abstract
As a result of the rise in the number of people getting
old in the world and the rise in dangerous diseases,
there is a need for the efficient healthcare system to
cater for the livelihood of people. One way of
achieving an efficient healthcare system is through the
application of remote health monitoring operations
which major in the Internet of Things (IoT)
technology. The app is vital for reducing the pressure
mounted on the healthcare systems and those people
who provide services in hospitals. Furthermore, the
system can help reduce the costs of healthcare and
also provide homecare for people with chronic illness
and the elderly who cannot make it to the hospital. The
paper is going to look at the ways by which the Internet
of Things based applications in the faculty of medicine
can be put in place to decrease the challenges faced
by people in the healthcare sector. The paper will also
suggest an IoT Tiered Architecture (IoTTA) as a
method of improving sensor data to real-time response
of the clinic. Such an approach takes into account
various aspects like sending, sensing, processing,
storing, minimizing, and learning. The plan is vital in
coming up with useful and practical solutions critical
in pursuing the development of systems in the IoT.
Keyword: Internet of Things, healthcare, machine
learning, health monitoring systems, homecare, data
2. Introduction
As a result of the growth in the number of people
getting old in the current world over the recent years
[1], [2] challenging issues in the sector of healthcare
are on the rise, which are a rise in the chronic diseases
and the increase in hospital expenditures to get access
to the services [3], [4], [5]. Monitoring of health is
vital when it comes to maintaining the health of
individuals majorly focusing on the elderly and people
suffering from the chronic ailments as the process can
lower the chances of hospitalization and at the same
time increase the quality of lives of people [6]. The
models applied traditionally for health monitoring
were time-consuming and therefore inconvenient [7]
and thus insufficient to come up with the solutions to
the challenges in the healthcare sector in the current
There has been an urge to come up with
efficient healthcare systems which will aid in reducing
the pressures on the operations of the hospitals and
those who provide the healthcare services. The system
was also to raise the quality of the care as well as
lowering the costs incurred in the supply of healthcare
services. Reducing costs is to be achieved by keeping
the patients out of the hospitals.
IoT is vital in coming up with remote
healthcare monitoring systems. Applications of IoT
come up with a paradigm to interconnect tangible and
virtual things [8]. Furthermore, the system allows the
communications between the stuff it interconnects,
sharing of information and the coordination of the
decisions. Recently, applications based on IoT in the
field of medicine have attracted the attention of
researchers and technologists. The paper is going to
present an IoT Tiered Architecture (IoTTA) through a
modified use to enhance sensor data into real-time
clinical response.
The research was conducted due to the
following reasons: One, People are getting old
throughout the world. From the United Nations [1]
people who are aged 60 and above in the whole
universe was 901 million in the year 2015, the figure
is estimated to increase to 1.4 billion by 2030 and
almost 2.1 billion by 2050. It is predicted that most
people will be 65 and above, the mean being roughly
50 years in many countries [2]. Secondly is the rise in
recurring diseases. Chronic Heart Failure is considered
to be the deadly disease that affects many people in
Europe where there are over 3.6 million new cases of
the disease each year, as is the fact in the United States
of America [3]. Thirdly, the expenditure on the
services offered in the hospitals and clinics is on the
rise. From the Centers of Medicare and Medicaids
Services (CMS), it was established that the bills of a
hospital in the U.S. rose from 3.5 percent in 2013 to
4.1 percent in 2014 accumulating to $971.8 billion in
the current year [5]. In the same trend, doctors and the
hospital service expenditure rose from 2.5 percent in
2013 to 4.6% in 2014 an approximate of $603.7 billion
in 2014 [5].
The current use of IoT in the medicine field
is mostly ad-hoc, based on the implementation and the
technologies in various cases. For instance, the writers
in [9] based their arguments on the telecare system and
its applications in the healthcare system. The operation
was first tested in Sweden using a two-step evaluation
whereby the survey with ten patients was conducted
followed by a field trial done at home with two patients
of chronic heart diseases. From the findings, the
system was found to be easily operated. The system,
however, had a finite broader integration or prolonged
usage. The algorithms for clinical support were in
place but are not fully utilized. For instance, in [10], a
diagnostic module is suggested via the fuzzy logic to
carry out early identification and alert for
Hypertension and Hypotension. The system is
however not broadly used.
The paper is to attain the following. First, it
is to come up with an overview of the current
techniques that support IoT-based applications.
Secondly, suggest IoTTA for the design and coming
up with the solutions of integrating specific techniques
in the healthcare system. Thirdly is to come up with
the scenarios where IoTTA can be used and lastly
come up with a proposal to address various challenges
in the healthcare sector.
3. Critical Literature Review
The study examined IoT healthcare
monitoring methods, the challenges encountered in the
healthcare system and how the gaps can be solved.
Previous studies have demonstrated that IoT is an
excellent tool for coming up with solutions to the
challenges encountered by people in the current world
of medicine [11]. The study was to assess how IoT can
be utilized to come up with the solution to the problem
of rising costs in the healthcare systems. As many
people are getting old by day there was a need of
coming up with a way of keeping such people at home
but at the same time provide medical attention to them
when they get sick, and by this, reducing the daily
costs of spending time in the hospitals [12].
The study was also to examine ways of
reducing the spread of chronic diseases. The diseases
are believed to be on the rise and a cause of the many
deaths witnessed in Europe and the United States [7].
The methodology section was grouped into various
sections addressing the design of research, choosing
the informants, data collection procedures, pilot
testing, instrumentation, and data analysis.
4. Research Design
From grounded qualitative research, surveys,
case study, and interviews were found to be the best
methods in this case. The plans were selected as they
were well fitted in coming up with responses to the
research questions appropriately. The stronghold of
the case study method is that it allows for the proper
examination of the phenomenon in details using the
different types of evidences obtained from the
interviews with those involved, direct observation of
events and analysis of documents and artifacts [13].
Furthermore, the case study was applied as the aim of
the research is to explain rather than prediction, and
the variable studied is not easily identifiable or
embedded in the phenomenon to be extracted for the
study [14]. Also, the case study enables the empirical
inquiry of the event within its real-life context and in
this case, the application of IoT in the field of
5. Data Collection Techniques
Interviews and observation were the primary
data collection methods used. The interviewers had to
visit the patients in hospitals and also in their homes to
come up with the challenges needed to be solved by
the use of the Internet of Things in the healthcare
sector. The systems in operation within the hospitals
were also observed in the way they perform the
functions and the recommendations made on how to
improve the system better to accommodate the
developing challenges in the healthcare sector.
Some secondary sources of data included the
documents provided by the service providers in
hospitals. The interviews were carried out based on the
questions in the interview guide through the
interviewees were given the freedom to talk about
their experience in a manner in which they were
satisfied as a requirement in the qualitative methods
6. Instrumentation
As interviewing was the data collection
method used, an Interview guide was used as the
instrumentation technique. Some of the questions
included in the guide were:
what challenges
are faced in the healthcare
operations systems as a result of a
lack of improvements in the
How can the
seniors in the society be assisted by
the system to be able to access
healthcare services easily?
How can IoT
improve the services offered in the
healthcare sector?
The method uses purposive and
little illustration as there is a high nomothetic
perspective and commitment to detailed data
inspection [16]. Well, vast surroundings
with compact sample sizes are inspired to
see to it the importance of the data gathered
and suitable investigation. Going by this
fact, six participants (four ladies and two
men) were taken from a city hospital.
7. Gap Identification
The following gaps were identified
from the research as the main challenges
facing the healthcare sector as a result of
poor operations systems:
8. Lack of chronic patients monitoring system
The vital signs of patients are to be
monitored. The importance of this is that it
will decrease the re-hospitalization by
detecting the problems at an early stage
thereby allowing a timely action towards the
illness to be taken [17]. Electrocardiography
was measured and the data transmitted to the
database using the internet [18] whereas
others were transmitted via wireless
communications [19]. The monitoring
system enables the diagnosis and the
intervention of emergency services at the
time of need [14] [15].
9. IoT Enables the Monitoring of the Elderly
The application of Telecare could
enable the individuals mostly those people
who are aged to have a comfortable life [20].
The old people will also be able to be given
an independent living through the
application of telecare whereby the
interventions of technology can support their
daily needs for instance smart home or
telemedicine [21]. Chuang et al. [22] came
up with the SilverLink system which uses
the sensors from objects and those from
people to indicate the activities of the user
and their status of health. Data from the
sensors are processed to detect the
abnormalities in the cells of people.
10. Emergency Detection
The emergency applications taking
part in IoT enables the detection of illnesses
at the best time, and this allows the provision
of emergency services [23]. The model
involves the monitoring of the health of the
patients by the medical devices and after
which the personal mobile devices analyze
the gathered data to come up with the
emergency cases then the information is
transferred to the medical data systems.
After the detection of an emergency issue,
the ambulance teams can reach out to the
patients in the right time.
11. IoT Tiered Architecture (IoTTA)
Such systems are applied through
the integration of different technologies like
wireless communications, sensor networks,
data processing, and cloud computing. Such
techniques put together in an IoT system can
come up with solutions to various chronic
illnesses [24]. The system is organized in
five sections of sensing, sending, processing,
storing and mining and finally learning.
Through the sensing, different parameters of
the health of patients are gathered and sent
to the processing section to be pre-
processed. The data is then transferred to the
storing section for more processing via the
tools in the mining and learning section after
which the processed information is stored
12. Proposal to the Gaps
The study proposed the integration
of IoTTA Tiered Architecture in the
healthcare sector to come up with solutions
to the challenges of the elderly and the
chronic diseases in the current world. The
architecture can come up with the answers as
it incorporates the five processes of sensing,
sending processing, storing and mining and
finally learning [25]. Patient problems will
be well analyzed through the application of
such an architecture. Monitoring of the
aging people will be quickly done while the
people are in their homes and this will
reduce the expenditure in the healthcare. The
extra cash can be used to cater for other
family needs like provision of food [19].
13. Conclusion and Future Work
The paper focused on some of the
health issues which faces the traditional
healthcare models in the current aging
world. Such problems included chronic
illnesses and the increase of hospital and
clinical expenditure. It was realized that to
reduce the pressure on the clinical system
and the providers of its care utilities, the
quality of care was to be improved and the
cost of healthcare decreased. The conditions
will only be met if effective and efficient
healthcare systems are developed. Remote
healthcare monitoring systems in IoT can be
the best solution in achieving the desired
14. References
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