Individual assignment

Organisational management
University affiliation
Organisational management
Question one
21st-century organisations heavily rely on the following management theories in the execution of
their duties.
Scientific management.
This theory strives to increase productivity through monetary motivation of the workforce Taylor
(1856-1917). He further asserted that, just as there is specific machinery for specific tasks, there
are diverse methodologies for undertaking different tasks (Kogg & Mont, 2012). This is evident
in the Kenya Airways. This firm has split up roles such that each has their duties to carry out.
While the pilots are busy manoeuvring the aircraft, engineers service other planes and different
section managers ensure the smooth running of their faculties. Monetary motivation comes into
play too with individuals assigned more significant tasks and ranks taking home better perks.
The Hawthorne Experiments
These experiments were carried out in Hawthorne plant between 1924-32 and authored by Elton
Mayo (1880-1949). The Illumination experiment- Findings showed that productivity was
affected by factors besides the physical ones (Kogg & Mont, 2012). The relay assembly test
room. This experiment showed that if workers receive more attention from management yield
better results. Hawthorne’s third experiment was the interviewing programme which showcased
that workers enjoy having some staff to confide in. This enables them to relieve stress and boost
their productivity (Aubry et al., 2008). The bank wiring observation room was the last of
Hawthorne experiments, and it clearly showed that working in the same environment forms
informal groups which may impact individual productivity negatively. In Kenya Airways, the
productivity of workers is affected more by personal issues than working condition. Workers are
often distracted by their mobile phones. Workers who are closely monitored and by their
superiors tend to produce better than their counterparts who are left on their own. Presence of
good Human Resource department has not only helped solved the worker's challenges but also
reward them hence motivating them to work better. However, informal groups tend to lower
productivity of individual employees since they strive to fit in the team.
The systems approach
This theory shows that an organisation is a set of many interrelated subsystems each with
different heads and personnel. A malfunction of one subsystem affects the running of the whole
system (Kogg & Mont, 2012). On the other hand, the smooth running of these subsystems is
channelled towards high production. In Kenya Airways, different departments are handling
different duties. A small mishap in one subsystem can lead to low productivity or even losses.
Neo-human Relations.
This based itself on individual adjustments to the working environment and effects collective
relations and leadership methodologies (Kogg & Mont, 2012). Interpersonal relations, job
satisfaction, group dynamics, participation, communication and good leadership fall into this
category. Kenya Airways has proper communication channels, ethical leadership and
management and has boosted interpersonal relations through team building.
Social action approach.
An organisation is affected by how individual employees view their work, the satisfaction they
derive from it and further dwells on personal expectations from the job. There can be either
unitary or pluralistic perception (Kogg & Mont, 2012). In unitary, the firm is viewed as a team
with a leader while pluralistic depicts the organisation as comprising of conflicting subgroups.
This can be seen in Kenya Airways where the outside world sees it as a single unit with a CEO
while it is evident there are several different directors each manning their section and trying to
outdo their colleagues.
Action Theory
According to Bowey, it is challenging to analyse the behaviour of a large organisation, and thus
it is best to incorporate the following concepts: Role, relationships, structure and process. These
provide an action approach behaviour analysis in organisations (Aubry et al., 2008). Kenya
Airways has a large workforce which is difficult to monitor and analyse. However, different
roles, relationships between employees, the structure of the whole firm and the processes
entailed for its smooth-running ease behaviour analysis (Hall et al., 2008).
Question 2
Organizational performance can be fostered through several approaches. Psychological and
social factors play a big role as well as technical and structural requirements. While the latter
base themselves on the employee’s well-being and interpersonal relationships around the
workplace, technical and structural requirements foster performance via good administrative
structure with a clear chain of command and a set of expectations which the workforce should
meet. For psychological and social aspect, the employee’s psychological needs are taken care of
thus making them settled and ready to perform better unlike the structural and technical
requirement which provides an organized and smooth-running environment for the employee to
work better hence improving the organizational performance.
Aubry, M., Hobbs, B., & Thuillier, D. (2008). Organisational project management: An historical
approach to the study of PMOs. International Journal of Project
Management, 26(1), 38-43.
Hall, W. P., Richards, G., Sarelius, C., & Kilpatrick, B. (2008). Organisational management of
project and technical knowledge over fleet lifecycles. Australian Journal of
Mechanical Engineering, 5(2), 81-95.
Kogg, B., & Mont, O. (2012). Environmental and social responsibility in supply chains: The
practice of choice and inter-organisational management. Ecological
Economics, 83, 154-163.

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