Introduction to Management

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Introduction to Management
Knowledge renewal is a managerial competency required to communicate effectively.
The knowledge acquired is essential in passing along informational messages to employees. An
informed manager can easily provide facts and sell ideas to employees. Transformational
messages that stimulate change can help in the performance enhancement of the employees. In
turn, this assists with the implementation of change in the organization. Promotional messages
which give direction and action needed to be taken are key to performance management. With
the direction given, the organization can take a step further towards its vision. Relational
messages are crucial in building trust with the employees and therefore puts the manager in a
position to motivate the employees and bring about commitment and compliance to rules and
Good employee communication is built on understanding one’s communication style and
that of others, whether amiable, expressive, or analytical. It is also based on understanding
people’s behavior and what motivates them. These foundations help in avoiding toxic
communications in the workplace such as hurling of accusations and backstabbing. It is also
important to understand that teams one may work with may be diverse culturally. Some cultures
encourage sensitivity and may have a different outlook on punctuality for example emphasis on
the importance of keeping time. They may also consider directness in speech as inappropriate
and have differing non-verbal cues. It is therefore important that everyone in the work team
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understands how to read body language and interpret non-verbal signals to avoid
Corporate social responsibility can be described as an organization's intent to go past its
legal and economic duties to act in ways that are good for the public. The organization, therefore,
takes actions in response to popular social needs to improve the society's welfare. This implies
that management has to be philanthropic and plan out ways of allocating some of their profits to
social projects. They also have to consider how they manage their waste materials to avoid
harming the local environment. Additionally, they have to produce good products and services at
a reasonable price. Meeting the social obligations while maximizing profits is among the
organizational stances on corporate social responsibility. They have to comply with the laws that
govern competition set by the society and meet their economic goals. Another stance involves
being socially responsive to the social norms and values by anticipating these norm and meeting
them even if they are not enacted by law. The organizations also have to be socially responsible
by regulating their disposal of waste products thus minimizing harm to the society.
One of the key views of ethical behavior is utilitarian. The objective is to offer the utmost
good for the largest number of individuals, and it is based exclusively on outcomes or
consequences. Another view on ethical behavior is based on rights of individuals. One, therefore,
ensures that they respect and protect the liberties and privileges of an individual without
interfering with other people's rights that may be influenced by a certain decision. Ethical
behavior may also be based on justice where decisions made fulfill the principles of justice such
as procedural, compensatory and distributive justice. Factors such as individual morality,
personality and the values an individual holds will determine whether an individual will behave
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ethically or unethically. The type of ethical issue being faced, the intensity of the issue and the
organization's culture and structure will also influence one's behavior regarding ethicality.
Leaders are made and not born. The qualities of being a good leader can be learned and
developed over time. The skills, knowledge, and values can be inculcated in an individual
through training. Self-leadership is important since a leader who cannot lead themselves toward a
certain goal cannot lead others. A leader like President Obama possesses the ability to
communicate effectively and influence others through the voice of reason. Through self-
leadership and effective communication, a leader builds up credibility which is the basis of
leadership. A good leader should also be motivational and give morale to his team. They will,
therefore, expect the best from their team and encourage ordinary people to produce
extraordinary results. A leader should also be able to know that there is only so much one
individual can handle and learn to delegate activities. This encourages teamwork and builds a
relationship based on trust and confidence. One should also possess a clear vision of the
possibilities that lay ahead for the organization, and this will enable them to lead the organization
in the right direction.
In the heroic management, managers are significant individuals detached from those who
develop goods and deliver services. This is different from the engaging management that
assumes that managers are important in that they assist other individuals working on product
development and service delivery. Heroic management also dictates that the higher up an
organization one goes, the more important one becomes and that strategy comes from the top for
everyone to implement. This is not the case in engaging management where the organization is
not a vertical hierarchy but an interacting network where strategies to solve problems arising
from the engaged individuals. The CEO applying heroic management assumes that the staff does
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not like implementing change and believe that managing is making decisions and allocating
resources. On the other hand, the leaders practicing engaging management believe that staff only
resist badly thought changes that are imposed upon them and manage their staff to convey the
positive energy that lives in folks. Therefore, heroic management is grounded on leadership
being thrusting one's will on others and that rewards go to the leadership. However, engaging
management bases leadership on valued trust earned the respect of others and that rewards for
success go to everyone.
Under the overview of strategic management, the strategy could be viewed as a process, a
tool or as a model. The process involves macro analysis which entails aspects such as politics,
how the economy is organized, social capital, environment, and legal instruments such as law.
Another step to consider is analysis of the industry as to whether there is competition that may
put pressure on prices and cost necessary to compete, the negotiating power of suppliers, danger
of substitutes, and the negotiating power of consumers who can force down prices. An
organizational analysis is also important to ensure that the resources are valuable, rare,
inimitable, and non-substitutable. The type of strategy model to follow is also important. A
decision has to be made on whether the porter or the miles and snow generic model would suit
the organization. A strategic direction is then reached at, and implementation and control of the
strategy follow.
There are varied views on strategic management. One view is that strategic management
is aimed at increasing the probability of one's product, technology, or design delivering success
and dominance in the competitive market. Another view describes strategic management as to
how an organization may disrupt competitors through innovative business models. Another view
sees strategic management as harnessing human capital in the process of innovation. Under the
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strategic matter, an important term managers should familiarize themselves with is the
organizational domain. This involves attaining a more balanced framework for identifying the
structural, political, cultural and social issues. The manager, therefore, has to protect what is
within or inside from external or environmental influences to create a stable organizational
A subjective view of organizational analysis is based on knowledge and power. It,
therefore, provides a balanced framework for identifying structural, social, cultural and political
issues. The subjective framework is therefore social and covers analysis people, culture, and the
larger macro environment. The framework helps in analyzing how the subsystems operate
together in an integrated manner. It is important that the leaders realize that the people under
their leadership make them who they are as an organization and therefore should be treated with
dignity and respect. The subjective framework also touches on the issue of inequality with the
example of fewer women being in positions of power or leadership. It also touches on the aspect
of having a learning institution or organization that is empowered with knowledge. This is
through integrated learning platforms available to employees such as GE employees. The
subjective framework can provide a platform to interpret concrete issues such as gender
inequalities in most organizations. It can also be employed in solving operational problems and
predict sustainability issues.
Analysis of subjective data is not easy because the subjective parameters are more
difficult to measure compared to the objective data such as analysis of system processes. An
example is in collecting data on gender. The difficulty arises as there is no clear definition of
gender. It is not clear-cut as to whether gender should be based on anatomical sex or a choice
made by someone. Gender also affects professional attraction as women do hairdressing. It is
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also hard for the studies to cover all the variables and therefore the data collected may be hard to
analyze or even act upon. Large samples may be seen differently statistically but may have no
practical significance. Therefore, managers will often find it easier to analyze objective data.
Innovation refers to change that adds potential value to a product. The reality, however, is
that innovation is uncertain, complicated and almost impossible to manage. Innovation
management, therefore, is critical as it helps to reduce the complexity found in the environment
and facilitates the clever use of available resources. The innovation framework is important to
appreciate the different aspects of IM, and this also helps in its study. An innovative framework
is a platform made to harness the creative talents of workers without straying from the corporate
strategy. Through it, new ideas from within can be developed. The framework has components
such as levels, competences, and dimensions. Levels tackle the challenges of innovation in the
face of driving forces such as technological, competitive, legal and social issues. Competences
deals with aspects such as idea management, market management, portfolio management, project
management, and technology product management. Dimensions is another aspect that involves
innovative leadership such as that displayed by Steve Jobs, innovative strategy, innovative
culture, innovative tools, and innovative processes. This attracts innovators and entrepreneurs.
Competences deals with aspects such as idea management, market management, and
portfolio management. Idea management involves the ability of a firm to identify and develop
ideas that may result in breakthrough products. This involves generating, capturing, processing,
evaluating, protecting and implementing ideas. Market management refers to a process where the
firm selects markets that will result in great value to the firm and customers. It involves ideas on
penetrating present markets, increasing new markets, developing new goods and diversification.
Portfolio management allows the firm to manage some innovative projects that are reasonable
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and balanced. It helps in balancing the different aspects such as knowledge of the market and
knowledge of technology.

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