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twin focus, which include improving social conditions and enhancing the biopsychosocial
functioning of groups and individuals.
One theory that appears to have significant relevance to the operations of Community
Waitakere is the systems theory, which contends that any entity, whether a community, an
organization, or a group is made up of multiple entities. An organization such as Community
Waitakere can be best discerned as a system with interwoven components and certain principles
that help in understanding the system. The system needs resources to function effectively, and
these come in the form of knowledge, equipment, funding, legitimacy, and people. These
resources interact with the entire system thereby leading to the desired outcome (Hepworth &
Larsen, 2009, p. 18). The community served by the Community Waitakere is not a single system
but a network of systems in which formal and informal individuals and groups interact. Given
the d multifariousness among various groups and subgroups, the community has a wide range of
functional and structural possibilities that do not adhere to a centralized objective.
In an organizational setting, systems approach discloses the difficulty involved in recognizing
several groups such as clerical staff, professional staff, the board, management, funding sources,
clients, and the wider community that all have various stakes in the activities if the organization
and the people it serves. Such a theoretical perspective serves to remind the practitioners that
organizations are multipart systems set in larger community systems, and interact on a daily
basis. Values, which refer to the principles and norms that the members of a social system regard
as essential, are key to social work practice. Values are somewhat similar to theories in the sense
that they offer frameworks within which situations can be understood and analyzed. Because
codes of ethics act as guidelines for social work professional practice, it is important to be
familiar with the content and inadequacies of written codes.