Literature Review, Causal Theory Logic Model and Researchable Questions

Literature Review, Causal Theory/Logic Model and Researchable Questions
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Literature Review, Causal Theory/Logic Model and Researchable Questions
While it is indispensable for researchers to determine variables when conducting a study,
the understanding of such variables requires one to understand the relationship of those factors. In
the previous exercise, the study sought to examine critical issues surrounding the Deferred Action
for Child Arrivals (DACA). For several years now, the U.S has continued to suffer the problem of
undocumented immigrants who illegally enter the country every year. A majority of Americans
including the current American President, Donald Trump, believe that immediate deportation can
end the problem once and for all (Meckler, 2017). Besides, the President has subscribed to the
school of thought that putting a stop to government financed initiatives such as DACA can help
seal the loopholes and end the safe haven for those who wish to illegally enter the country. As
established earlier on, this study is based on a multiple ordinary linear squares (OLS) model or
linear regression model. The model developed earlier on is as follows;
Letin1 = α + β1child + β2paeduc + β3PRES08 + β4region
Letin1 denotes the number of immigrants that can be allowed into the country.
Child the number of the respondents’ kids.
Paeduc the level of education of the parent.
PRES08 a variable for finding political choice for the Democrats and Republicans. It represents
the role played by political parties and immigration policies.
Region denotes the area of residence of the immigrants.
According to the above model, the variables that can be identified include the immigrants
that should be permitted into the country annually, the number of children that each immigrant
has, the highest level of education attained by the parents of kids that were previously covered by
the DACA program, political factors such as parties and policies, and lastly, the home or initial
place of residence of the immigrants. Apparently, the factors can be represented in a simple logic
model that can also be used to establish causal relationships amongst the variables. According to
the Kellogg Foundation’s “Logic model development guide,” logic modeling significantly
improves the participatory role and makes evaluation more useful as an approach for management
and learning (2004). In order to develop a working or practical logic model, one should be able to
identify outcomes and anticipate the best ways of measuring them to offer participants of the
program and a clear roadmap regarding the exercise. However, causal relationships can be
discussed before fitting the variables, activities, outcomes and outputs in the logical model.
For instance, the issues surrounding the DACA program point to the causal relationship
between the number of illegal immigrants sneaking into the country and the policies put in place.
Specifically, the squabble between Democrats and Republics evidently emanate from the high
number of immigrants and their children that need to be registered under the DACA programs.
Again, the more the immigrants that enter the country the more stringent policies are put in place
by the government.
Furthermore, a causal relationship exists between the level of education of the parents of
the DACA kids and possible ending of the program. For example, educated immigrant parents
understand the legal procedures and avenues that need to be followed to get documented and
legally register their kids. In addition, such educated immigrant parents clearly understand the risks
of helping others to sneak into the country or giving birth to many kids with hope to have them
covered under the DACA initiative.
Additionally, the high the number of immigrant children the higher the chances of applying
strict measures which include completely dismissing the program and scraping off any legal
provisions that protect the children who were previously covered by DACA initiative. Considering
that these factors were yet to be resolved, the Republicans led by President Trump are still pushing
to end immigrants’ support programs including the DACA (Kendall & Meckler, 2018). Hence a
possible eventual ending of the program can help answer the following researchable questions.
(a.) What are the likely effects that children born of immigrants are likely to face due to the
sudden ending of DACA?
(b.) How are the Dreamers affected by the ongoing debate about ending the DACA program
and plans to initiate deportation of undocumented immigrants?
(c.) How many children or dreamers are likely to be affected by this debate?
Kendall, B., & Meckler, L. (2018). Supreme Court deals setback to Trump Immigration Policy
on ‘Dreamers’. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from
Meckler, L. (2017). Trump Administration ends DACA Program for Immigrants. The Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved March 5, 2018, from
W.K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic Model Development Guide. Using Logic Models to
bring together Planning, Evaluation, and Action.

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