Literature Review Technology, Manipulation, and Identity Formation

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Literature Review: Technology, Manipulation, and Identity Formation
Scholarly articles present a myriad of ideas that link technology, manipulation and
identity formation. Thus, the paper seeks to establish what other authors have published about
the above aspects and attempt to answer the research question. As enumerated in the research
proposal, the research questions guiding this research include: why do people consciously allow
manipulating by them? Is it possible to use an ability to subdue for feeling one’s priority over
others? Even though scholars may not have addressed these questions specifically, the review is
intended to further understanding of above research questions.
Review of the Articles
First, in order to answer the above research questions, it is important to shade light on the
issue of manipulation. In the article “The new market manipulation” by Tom Lin, the author
emphasizes the challenges that the market is facing with regard to market manipulation. As an
associate professor of Law at the Temple University Beasley School of Law, Lin explored the
criminal offense committed by offenders that result in market manipulation. With different kinds
of manipulation many of which can go undetected, millions of dollars can disappear in seconds
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(Lin 1253); for instance, the article refers to manipulation as “the new precarious reality of our
financial markets” (Lin 1253). Since the author did not conduct a scientific research, the survey
method was explored to aid Lin to explore the changing nature of market manipulation.
Whereas market manipulation is a dangerous and rogue behavior in its entirety, various
specific elements of constituting this mode of market manipulation. According to Lin (1256),
rogue actors carry out different kinds of manipulation including "cornering, front-running, and
pumping-and-dumping" in addition to other risky behaviors such as spoofing, pinging and mass
misinformation" (Lin 1253). Moreover, the article went a step further to argue that the new
cybernetic market manipulation schemes tend to leverage contemporary forms of technology
such as social media, electronic networks, and artificial intelligence. Agreeably, Lin emphasized
that these forms of digital manipulation are more harmful when compared to traditional
manipulation schemes. Here, the author demonstrates how technology enhances or makes it
easier for rogue actors to conduct manipulation by pouncing on the vulnerable and unsuspecting
individuals. In this era, many people are exposed to digital manipulation due to their increased
access and use of social media and other platforms. Besides, the Internet of Things (IoT) plays a
critical role in cybernetic market manipulation because a wide range of devices that record and
store personal data, for example, door alarms and refrigerators may make it easier for rogue
actors to manipulate others. Clearly, the article is useful to the research question because by
proposing various measures of combating marketing manipulation such as enhancing the
intermediary integrity and boosting financial security, it provides the options that can be
considered as solutions to the problem. Also, the next article attempts to offer additional
solutions to the manipulation issue.
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In the above article, Lin discusses a case that manipulation is a serious issue that the
market faces today. However, two editors, Daniel Kleppner and Phillip A. Sharp are concerned
with the fact that scientific research is on the verge of being manipulated by individuals with ill
motives. According to Kleppner and Sharp (368), it is currently a challenge for researchers to
maintain the integrity of scientific research data due to the difficulties brought about by the
revolutionary digital technologies. In the editorial article “Research data in the digital age”
released by the U.S National Academies, different scholars expressed diverse views regarding
the challenges currently faced in ensuring that the integrity of scientific data is not compromised.
The article is based on another report cited in the week’s editorial titled “Ensuring the integrity,
accessibility, and stewardship of research data in the digital age.” In the report, the important
element that Kleppner and Sharp (368) pointed out in their article is the borrowed framework for
addressing the challenges affecting the community that is caused by the onrush digital
Seemingly, manipulation is also a serious issue affecting scientific research. The article
notes that several authors have expressed concerns over digital technologies are behind the
manipulation of images. As noted in the article, “In 2007, Ralph Cicerone, president of the U.S.
National Academy of Sciences, received letters from the editors of several journals expressing
concern about the manipulation of digital images in scientific manuscripts” (Kleppner and Sharp
368). However, this is simply one of the many problems related to how data is handled since the
advent of digital technologies. Such information is thus affected in the process it is acquired,
share and stored across academic disciplines. Thus, this article is relevant to the question because
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it offers a different angle or perspective in regard to manipulation. Additionally, measures of this
manipulation behavior have been explored.
In a different article, a team of researchers attempted to examine how manipulation can
be measured. The article "Exposure to the criminal environment and criminal social identity in a
sample of adult prisoners: the moderating role of psychopathic traits" by Sherretts, Boduszek and
Debowska sought to investigate the assumption that human behavior such as manipulation can
be influenced by factors including time. The three authors sought to examine the role played by
“period of incarceration, criminal friend index (a retrospective measure intended to quantify
criminal associations before the first incarceration) and 4 psychopathy factors” (Sherretts,
Boduszek and Debowska 430). According to the authors, interpersonal manipulation,
coldhearted effect, erratic lifestyle and antisocial traits constitute the psychopathic elements that
are criminal. The methods applied in the article include case study and survey which involved a
sample size of 501 participants. The surveys were carried out on 3 prisons involving inmates (in
male maximum-security, male medium-security and female maximum-security prisons) in the
state of Pennsylvania. Apparently, this is an informative article considering that it is based on a
scientific research and that the participants in the research were those convicted of different
crimes some of which may manipulation. Again, the article addresses the criminal social
identities by examining various indexes and measures. According to the findings, the “period of
incarceration was found to be significantly positively correlated with MCSI” but only for
offenders found to have interpersonal manipulation” (Sherretts et al. 433). Also, criminal friend
index had a significant positive correlation with the measure of criminal social identity (MSCI).
Here, it can be established that individuals tend to manipulate others due to interpersonal rogue
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behavior and by them associating with criminal manipulators. These findings already try to
answer the questions that underline this research.
Lastly, manipulation particularly market manipulation has continued to be a major
concern today. The increase in technological innovation worsens the situation by exposing
vulnerable individuals and companies to rogue actors. Digital technologies such electronic
networks, social media or channels and devices expose people to various kinds of manipulation.
Apparently, people do not willingly accept to be manipulated. Also, people who manipulate
others do it in their conscious state. As it seems, scientific research data is facing the risk of
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Works Cited
Kleppner, Daniel, and Sharp, Phillip A., Research Data in the Digital Age, Editorial
325(No.5939); 24 Jul 2009, p.368.
Lin, Tom, C.W, The New Market Manipulation, Emory Law Journal 66(1253); 2017.
Sherretts, Nicole et al. "Exposure to Criminal Environment and Criminal Social Identity in A
Sample of Adult Prisoners: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits.". Law and
Human Behavior, vol 40, no. 4, 2016, pp. 430-439. American Psychological Association
(APA), doi:10.1037/lhb0000188.

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