Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
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Lung cancer is a condition that affects the main organ of the respiratory system, the Lung.
This type of cancer is primarily the highest in prevalence as compared to any form of cancer.
Due to the fact that typical types of lung cancers are often diagnosed at relatively late stages,
approximately 10% of all lung cancer patients seem to respond to treatment ultimately and
the compact majority usually succumb to the illness (Gutschner, 2013). According to the
statistics available, 8 out of 10 lung cancers results from smoking. Several types of lung
cancers are classified as either being a small cell as well as non-cell cancers (Yang et al.,
2013). Persistent bloody and cough sputum can be used as a confirmatory test for cancer
diagnosis. Alternatively, diagnosed through the examination of sputum or tissue examination
by bronchoscopy with Biopsy, surgical excision and chest wall can also be used.
The Signs and Symptoms
The most frequent signs and symptoms of lung cancer observed include chest pains in form
of heavy vague, discomfort and fatigue, dynamic coughs, lack of energy, feelings of
exhaustion, persistent chest infection, dyspnoea, loss of appetite followed by significant loss
of weight and Breathlessness (Garon &Rizvi, 2015). Leary (2012) outlines that about 75% of
patients with lung cancer experience a dramatic change in sputum or coughs they encounter.
From the report generated by the NHS, it is anticipated that a cough extended for a period
longer than two weeks might be amongst the symptoms of cancer.
The spitting of blood (Haemoptysis) serves as the most prominent sign of the progression of
lung cancer (Pless et al., 2015). Many types of lung cancers take place in the central airway
and as a consequence, they may perpetuate post-obstructive pneumonia. The minute signs
displayed may include swelling of the face or neck, inability to swallow anything,
uncontrolled high temperature as well as the production of a hoarse voice. Infections such as
pneumonia and bronchitis that do not get treated proceed reoccurring to individuals with lung
cancer (Shaw et al., 2013).
Furthermore, lung cancer may spread to other typical organs of the body leading associated
problems such as born pain in the hips or at the back. Yellowing of the eyes and skin
primarily a condition known as jaundice from cancer spreading to the liver (Reck et al.,
2014). There might also be nervous changes that may lead to incidences such as a headache,
numbness of the leg or the arm, general weaknesses and imbalance problems, dizziness and
seizures as a result of lung cancer spreading to the spinal cord or the brain. Additionally,
lumps near the body surface as a result of spreading of cancer to the lymph nodes or the skin
like those above the collarbone or the neck may be experienced (Reck et al., 2014).
Typical tests for diademing Lung cancer are available. To mention a few they include the
following: use of Computerised chromatography (CT) scan, Chest X-ray, bronchoscopy,
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)- CT-scan, thoracoscopy, bioscopy and last but not
least, mediastinoscopy (Moyer, 2014). The X-ray technique is the most applicable globally
for the diagnosis of cancer. There is the appearance of grey or white masses that are observed
after the X-ray has been done serving as confirmatory tests for the presence of cancer.
Broadly, the X-ray is unable to see quite an insignificant percentage of lung cancers.
However, they can still be observed as lymph nodes enlargement or effusion of the pleural
membrane (Garon &Rizvi, 2015).
If there are any forms of suspicion remain dominant computerized chromatography (CT), it is
utilized as an alternative diagnosis. The CT can deliver adequate diagnostic information and
serves as a more advanced as compared to chest radiography. Before engaging in the
procedure an injection with a dye is inserted into the patient in order to develop a detailed
image of the lungs (Ashworth et al., 2013).
On the other hand, PET- CT-scan utilizes the glucose analogy and it is conducted if the
results outline an early developmental stage of cancer. If by chance the tumor is found
centrally within your lungs, a procedure regarded as bioscopy can be used in the extraction of
a sample (Shaw et al., 2013). A relatively smaller bronchoscope tube may be passed down
into the airways through the throat with the assistance of a local anesthetic.
The thoracoscopy involves the collection of tissue sample and fluid within an individual.
Three cuts are dissected in the chest to pass along the tube in the same way as to how
bronchoscope that would pave the way to enhance the collection of the sample (Pless et al.,
2015). If there is the absence of the metastatic diseases performance of the mediastinoscopy
procedure should be undertaken. This is primarily concerned with the examination of the
central region of the chest of the patient. A small dissection made below the bottom of the
neck is made to pass a considerably thicker tube within the tube (Yang et al., 2013).
Sputum cytology can also be used as one amongst the diagnosis technicians. If an individual
is experiencing persistent cough or producing sputum, investigation of the sputum through
the microscope will occasionally reveal the presence of the lung cancer cells (Lortet-Tieulent
et al., 2014).
According to Rivera, Mehta, and Wahidi(2013), it has been conventionally accepted that
before treatment of lung cancer conducted, there are several factors that need to be
considered. This includes aspects such as the type of lung cancer, the stage of development
and size of the lung cancer as well as the general wholesome condition of the victim. The
non-small types of lung cancer are treated through the use of chemotherapy. For the minute
stage, cancer can be treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy as well as cranial prophylactic
irradiation. The last approach is the most effective and has been discovered to cure
approximately 15-20 % of all he limited NLRCL (Markou et al., 2013).
Socio-economic importance of lung cancer
There are typical socio-economic impacts associated with any kind of disease, however, Lung
cancer presents more significant socio-economic impacts as compared to any other condition.
Economically, lung cancer deprives the resources of a family or individual for purposes of
treating the disease (Borghaei et al., 2015). It also stagnates the general development of the
economy as more efforts would be channeled towards the alleviation of the problem.
Furthermore, it reduces the employee workforce and qualified personnel as those people who
are sickly become very weak and feeble hence being unable to work effectively (Wu et al.,
Socially, lung cancer leads to loneliness due to death of the victims, enhancessocial
stigmatization as those patients suffering from lung cancer are observed as being good for
nothing and that they would eventually die. It may result into increased orphans and treat
children; it promotes poverty in a family especially if the bread weaner of the family
succumbs to the illness (Rizvi et al., 2015).
Rizvi, N.A., Hellmann, M.D., Snyder, A., Kvistborg, P., Makarov, V., Havel, J.J., Lee, W.,
Yuan, J., Wong, P., Ho, T.S. and Miller, M.L., 2015. Mutational landscape determines
sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Science, 348(6230), pp.124-128.
Markou, A., Sourvinou, I., Vorkas, P.A., Yousef, G.M. and Lianidou, E., 2013. Clinical
evaluation of microRNA expression profiling in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer,
81(3), pp.388-396.
Borghaei, H., Paz-Ares, L., Horn, L., Spigel, D.R., Steins, M., Ready, N.E., Chow, L.Q.,
Vokes, E.E., Felip, E., Holgado, E. and Barlesi, F., 2015. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in
advanced nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine,
373(17), pp.1627-1639.
Lortet-Tieulent, J., Soerjomataram, I., Ferlay, J., Rutherford, M., Weiderpass, E. and Bray,
F., 2014. International trends in lung cancer incidence by histological subtype:
adenocarcinoma stabilizing in men but still increasing in women. Lung cancer, 84(1), pp.13-
Yang, J.J., Chen, H.J., Yan, H.H., Zhang, X.C., Zhou, Q., Su, J., Wang, Z., Xu, C.R., Huang,
Y.S., Wang, B.C. and Yang, X.N., 2013. Clinical modes of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor
failure and subsequent management in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer,
79(1), pp.33-39.
Shaw, A.T., Kim, D.W., Nakagawa, K., Seto, T., Crinó, L., Ahn, M.J., De Pas, T., Besse, B.,
Solomon, B.J., Blackhall, F. and Wu, Y.L., 2013. Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in
advanced ALK-positive lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(25), pp.2385-
Rivera, M.P., Mehta, A.C. and Wahidi, M.M., 2013. Establishing the diagnosis of lung
cancer: Diagnosis and management of lung cancer: American College of Chest Physicians
evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. CHEST Journal, 143(5_suppl), pp.e142S-e165S.
Ashworth, A., Rodrigues, G., Boldt, G. and Palma, D., 2013. Is there an oligometastatic state
in non-small cell lung cancer? A systematic review of the literature. Lung cancer, 82(2),
Wu, Y.L., Zhou, C., Hu, C.P., Feng, J., Lu, S., Huang, Y., Li, W., Hou, M., Shi, J.H., Lee,
K.Y. and Xu, C.R., 2014. Afatinib versus cisplatin plus gemcitabine for first-line treatment of
Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations (LUX-
Lung 6): an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. The lancet oncology, 15(2), pp.213-222.
Gutschner, T., 2013. The noncoding RNA MALAT1 is a critical regulator of the metastasis
phenotype of lung cancer cells. Cancer research, 73(3), pp.1180-1189.
Garon, E.B., and Rizvi, N.A., 2015. Pembrolizumab for the treatment of nonsmall-cell lung
cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(21), pp.2018-2028.
Moyer, V.A., 2014. Screening for lung cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force
recommendation statement. Annals of internal medicine, 160(5), pp.330-338.
Sundar, R., Soong, R., Cho, B.C., Brahmer, J.R. and Soo, R.A., 2014. Immunotherapy in the
treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer, 85(2), pp.101-109.
Reck, M., Kaiser, R., Mellemgaard, A., 2014. Docetaxel plus nintedanib versus docetaxel
plus placebo in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (LUME-Lung 1):
a phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. The lancet oncology, 15(2), pp.143-155.
Pless, M., Stupp, R., Ris, H.B., Stahel, R.A., 2015. Induction chemoradiation in stage
IIIA/N2 non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 3 randomised trial. The Lancet, 386(9998),

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