close to three percent per annum, which influences the situation as well. The food-shortage issue
in Burundi has caused severe nutritional issues.
In this context, the effect has come with a significant impact on the health of many
Burundians. Most of them, especially children, are hit with marasmus and kwashiorkor because
of food inadequacy in the country. Besides, many women and children are suffering from acute
lack of micronutrients in the diets. As a result, these groups are extremely exposed to contracting
diseases that come due to lack of these essential nutrients in the body. Since children and women
do not get enough iron, iodine, vitamin A, and zinc in their meals, they have been found to suffer
from poor physical growth and retarded intellectual development. Anemia, another serious health
problem, affects children and women in Burundi because of food shortage in the country.
Information provided by the World Bank indicates that more than 40 percent of pregnant women
and 55 percent of children aged five and below suffer from this infection. The cases of anemia,
kwashiorkor, marasmus, and poor physical as well as intellectual development are some of the
consequences of poor nutrition caused by food shortage in Burundi.
Besides health, the issue of malnutrition in the country can equally be placed in an ethical
context. For instance, the principle of justice requires people to be fair to others by giving them
what they deserve. However, leaders have not done anything positive to the citizens, as they have
failed to tackle the issue of malnutrition (Inamahoro et al. 16). In particular, they are supposed to
concentrate their efforts on implementing policies that would increase food production in the
country. Non-maleficence, another ethical theory, states that one should always refrain from
directly or indirectly harming others. In Burundi, it is the opposite, as those in power perpetrate
civil conflicts that affect food production and consequently cause the problem of malnutrition.
Like non-maleficence and justice, the principle of rights reinforces the need to give to