Medical Conditions of the Human Body Type 1 Diabetes

Medical Conditions of the Human Body: Type 1 Diabetes
Medical Conditions of the Human Body: Type 1 Diabetes
In this research, I chose type 1 diabetes because it is the rarest form of the disease. Even
though there are some similarities in the symptoms, diagnosis, and prognosis in both type 1 and 2
of the disease, type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed among children and young adults. Physicians
previously referred to it as juvenile diabetes. Among all people suffering from the disease, only 5
percent of the patients have the type 1 diabetes. To research and study type 1 diabetes is of great
importance because it is less common and much research have been done on type 2 of the
disease following its popularity. Type 1 diabetes is more complex and has the highest mortality
rate. Even though few research has been done on the subject, and the fact that it is more
prevalent within the younger generation, scientist have made a conclusion that it is the most
inherited or genetic form of the disease. The condition involves no production of insulin
hormone in the pancreas and the victim has to be administered to the hormone’s regular intake to
maintain its symptoms.
Type 1 diabetes entails zero production of insulin in the pancreas, which is an organ
malfunction; hence relating the disease more genetically and can be maintained or sustained
effectively through insulin administration. It affects the young generation mostly and presents
the most severe symptoms and high mortality rate compared to the type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
Generally, diabetes is a medical condition that involves the insufficiency or
malfunctioning of insulin, which leads to high levels of blood sugar or glucose (Bloom, 2012).
The body breaks the energy foods people eat into simple sugar known as glucose to be utilized in
the cells for energy production. The type 2 diabetes, which is more common, ensues when the
body does not utilize insulin well. The type 1 diabetes, on the other hand, results from the
malfunctioning of pancreasthe organ that secretes insulin hormonedoes not produce insulin
(Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015). The body needs the hormone to move glucose from the blood
into the cells where it burns through respiration to produce energy. When the body does not
produce energy, most of the organs such as liver begin to malfunction, which results in
accumulation of toxins in the body. Diabetes also leads to death when the brain does not have
enough energy to run the organs. Therefore, diabetes is not a about lack of blood sugar
(hypoglycemia) or too much sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia), but the incapability of glucose
absorption into the cells where it can be used to produced energy due to insulin insufficiency.
Too much sugar in the blood, hyperglycemia, is a condition associated with the disease because
when the cells do not absorb glucose, huge amounts of sugar remain in the blood.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Diabetes exudes a number of symptoms that may interfere with an individual’s daily
activities or comfort. For instance, the disease makes the patient to visit the toilet many times,
especially during the night. The person always feels thirsty and tired than usual. More often,
people suffering from diabetes lose weight unintentionally (Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015).
They experience other medical conditions such as itching and genital thrush. Besides having
blurred vision, people suffering from diabetes take longer time to heal when they have cuts or
Type 2 diabetes has mild signs and symptoms that people hardly notice until they
experience problems resulting from long-term damages caused by the disease. However, the type
1 diabetes has symptoms that ensue immediately, usually in a matter of days or after some few
weeks after the development of the disease (Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015). The symptoms of
type 1 diabetes are normally much severe. The symptoms result from complications associated
with high glucose levels in the bloodstream due to low or lack of insulin hormone. For example,
persons suffering from diabetes experience constant hunger and fatigue (Evans, Scriven, &
Scriven, 2015). The body converts glucose into energy in the cells, which needs insulin. When
the cells cannot bring glucose in due to insulin deficiency, the victims would lack energy
eventually, which makes them hungry and tired.
Another symptom people with diabetes show is urinating constantly and feeling thirstier.
Normally, the body reabsorbs glucose as it goes through the kidney but diabetes pushes the
levels of blood sugar up, which the kidney may not manage to reabsorb in entirety (Bloom,
2012). It causes the body to produce more urine, which makes the body to use more fluids. When
the body lacks fluids, people tend to be thirstier, making them to drink more and resultantly,
urinate more (Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015). The diabetics experience itchy skin and dry
mouth because the body uses most of the fluids to produce urine that leaves less moisture for
other body functions. They become dehydrated; hence, dry mouth and itch dry skin. People with
diabetes often experience blurred vision, which is a common symptom (Bloom, 2012). The
disease causes constant changes in the body fluid levels that make the lenses in the eyes to swell
up. As a result, the lenses change shapes and lose the ability to create focus.
The genital itching is caused by lack of body fluids and development of infections, which
also causes thrush. The symptom occurs because the disease retains sugar in the blood. For the
body to reduce the blood sugar levels, it tends to flush the extra glucose from the body in urine.
High sugar levels in the urine passing through the urinary tract create a perfect environment for
fungus, and it causes fungal infections such as thrush.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
A condition known as prediabetes occurs when the blood sugar level is higher than
normal but not to the extent of causing diabetes. The prediabetic condition, however, makes a
person vulnerable to suffering from diabetes. The type 1 diabetes usually occurs when a person’s
immune system that fights infections from the body system attacks and destroys most of the beta
cells responsible for insulin secretion in the pancreas (Bloom, 2012). This type of diabetes may
also result from genetic conditions (Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015). Many medical researchers
believe that the preconditions causing diabetes are hereditary because people with the history of
the disease in their lineage usually acquire the condition.
Environmental factors can cause type 1 diabetes. People with other cardiovascular
diseases or obese are susceptible to developing diabetes because the present some medical pre-
conditions that may trigger the disease (Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015). Scientists, therefore,
have categorized diabetes as a lifetime illness caused by various environmental factors.
Additionally, other microbes such as viruses existing in the environment may expose an
individual to immune factors that triggers the onset of prediabetic conditions, and diabetes
eventually. Other environmental factors that may cause the disease include damage to the
pancreas from objects or chemicals in the environment, genetic mutations from what enters the
body that may inhibit insulin production, and intake of certain medications.
Diagnosis for Diabetes
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes appear almost immediately, which prompts the victim
to seek diagnosis. The ADA (American Diabetes Association) recommends that persons with a
BMI (Body Mass Index) higher than 25 and those older than 45 years undertake screening for
diabetes (Mayo Clinic, 2018). All types of diabetes are diagnosable through Glycated
Hemoglobin (A1C) Test. The test measures the blood sugar percentage attached to the
hemoglobin and indicates the average level of blood glucose for the past 2-3 months (Mayo
Clinic, 2018). When an individual has a A1C level above 6.5 percent, they are diabetic and
prediabetic if the level is between 5.7 and 6.4 percent (Mayo Clinic, 2018). Normal individuals
have A1C level at 5.7 and below (Mayo Clinic, 2018).
Other diagnostic processes included random blood sugar tests where physicians take and
test blood samples randomly. Diabetic people exhibit blood sugar levels of 200 mg/dL and
higher (Mayo Clinic, 2018). The fasting blood sugar test involves the drawing and testing blood
samples after overnight fast. People with blood sugar levels at 126 mg/dL and higher are
diabetic; 100 mg/dL are normal; and 100-125 mg/dL are prediabetic (Mayo Clinic, 2018). In oral
glucose tolerance test, the subject fasts overnight then undergoes blood sugar level measurement
then drinks a sugary drink before measurements of blood sugar levels periodically for two hours.
Tests showing blood sugar levels of 140 mg/dL indicate normal; 200 mg/dL indicate diabetes;
and 140-199 mg/dL indicates prediabetes (Mayo Clinic, 2018).
Prognosis and Treatment of Diabetes
Diabetes is manageable through healthy eating and physical activity. In type 1 diabetes,
treatment involves insulin injections using insulin pumps, carbohydrate counting, and frequent
tests of blood sugar. The diabetic have different treatments plans. They could undergo blood
sugar tests as regularly as directed by the physician. The insulin therapy is effective in people
with all types of diabetes (Evans, Scriven, & Scriven, 2015). The hormone is not administered
orally since the stomach enzymes may interfere with its action; hence, the use of an insulin
pump. The disease is manageable through administration of oral and other medications. In some
patients suffering from type 1 diabetes, transplantation of pancreas may remedy the condition. If
the transplant is successful, the patients become cured and would no longer need insulin therapy.
Bariatric surgery is a treatment process for type 1 diabetes.
The main organ that is affected by diabetes is the pancreas. Other organs that the
conditions affect include kidney, liver, eyes, and nerves. In comparisons to the human life
expectancy, people with type 2 diabetes have their life expectancy shorter by 10 years on average
while those with type 1 diabetes have 20 years shorter life expectancy on average (Bloom, 2012).
Diabetics have shorter life expectancy because the disease affects the organs, especially kidneys,
and leads to accumulation of toxins in the body.
Scientists do not completely understand the factors underlying the diabetic condition.
Current research looks into the bariatric surgery effectiveness on type 2 diabetes and its long-
term benefits and risks. Scientists focus on the causes and maintenance of gestational diabetes
that occurs only among some pregnant women. More studies focus on the pinpoint causes of the
rare type 1 diabetes, and the possible ways to prevent, cure, and manage the condition. The
condition may interfere with a person’s lifestyle. For instance, it requires strict eating habits that
constrict a patient to certain types of foods. It creates discomfort, especially by causing itchy skin
and thrush, since the diabetic condition causes tiredness most of the time due to low glucose
intake by the cell to produce energy; the disease prevents the patient from enjoying sports or
hobbies that require much energy.
Own Hypothesis
Diabetes is manageable through effectively through proper dieting and exercise as guided by the
physician, including proper medications, but complete cure is achievable by pancreas
transplantation and surgical procedures.
Bloom, A. (2012). Diabetes Explained. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Evans, J., Scriven, A., & In Scriven, A. (2015). Public Health Mini-Guides: Diabetes E-book.
Mayo Clinic. (2018). Diabetes: Diagnosis. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from

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