Alexander highlights the system of justice, the law, societal stereotypes, various societal
hierarchies, racial castes, and mythologies to cover the topic of mass incarceration in a unique
and outstanding way.
Chapter One: The Rebirth of Caste; The Racial Caste Systems
In summary, Chapter One of the text is a review of the evolution of the Caste Systems of racism
from the colonial era to the end of the twentieth century. In this coverage, the author proves to us
that racism has always existed and may continue to exist into the future to an unlimited age.
Evolutionarily, racism has also been adaptable and has borne the ability to transform into a new
trend every time its previous system is challenged. Hence, she begins this coverage by evaluating
the colonial era. During this period, she indicates that the racial caste system placed blacks at the
bottom of the system where they were oppressed and their fundamental human rights overtly
misused. Thus, they were bought or merely captured then transported to America where they
became slaves to supply cheap labor at the expense of their freedom and almost no
compensation. The next phase of the racial caste systems was that of Jim Crow. Although
Alexander indicates that this system deceptively appeared different, she analyzes that the
principles underlying its operations remained similar to those of the slavery time. Thus, blacks
and other people of color were still suppressed, monitored, and regulated. Actions of civil rights
movements brought down this system and to the amazement of the un-expecting, the war on
drugs replaced it. This was ran across the 1980s and 1990s.
Chapter Two: The Lockdown; The Criminal Justice System
Through a step-by-step process, Alexander analyses the criminal justice system in chapter two.
In her analysis, she shows the path incarceration takes with its victims. She opens the process at
the point of arrest with all the factors that play in causing those who will ultimately end in