Modern World History Questions

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Student’s name
Modern World History Questions
1. Discuss the causes of the First World War from a European perspective and what events led
the United States to intervene in the conflict? What was the impact of the war on the world?
Europe was at the heart of the World war, and disagreements and division among European
countries among themselves led to a great standoff. Europe started experiencing unanswered and
suspicious assassinations of the high ranking officials. For example, the assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered a state of unrest throughout Europe. For many years, these
assassinations raised the attention of the Europeans but with the assassination of Archduke
resulted into a major crisis. This was the main incident that triggered a series of activities and
events that eventually led to the war. Thus, the world war came as a result of cause and effect of
events in Europe.
When the suspicions of an eruption of the war emerged in Europe different European
countries started making weapons to equip them when the day comes. The countries began
engaging in an arms race every country striving to have the most sophisticated weapons that
would guarantee them to win in the event of the war. Besides, the European countries had
colonies across the world and had to ensure that they remained in control. Most of the countries
under the rule of the Europeans had started making efforts to liberate themselves from
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colonialism. Some of the countries wanted to extend their colonies and thus started conflicting
among themselves making the unrest in Europe intensified. When the unrest was too intense, and
the war could erupt any time, different European countries started finding and signing mutual
agreements between allies who could stand with them and support them in the event of the war.
All in all, the division of the European countries into two resulted in unrests which eventually
resulted into war.
The United States had remained neutral for a long time and had refrained from taking
part in the war under all costs. The United States joined the war was to counter Germany
unrestricted warfare which sunk American ships. The government of the United States was very
bitter about the same and interpreted that to mean that Germany was picking a conflict with the
US. The US, therefore, joined the war purposely to avenge her people and property against the
Germans. Through Zimmerman Telegram Germany sought the alliance of Mexico against the
United States. Even before the United States had commenced her operations against the Germans
were already preparing to counter the United States in case of retaliation. Considering all events
and actions by the Germans, the United States Congress declared war on Germany. Pursuing
Germany meant that the United States had to face both Germany and her allies.
World War 1 marked the end of colonialism in most of the countries around the world.
Countries under the European colonization utilized the opportunity to start their plans to liberate
themselves from the colonial rule. The war changed the economic status of most of the countries
across the world. Europe was significantly destabilized falling into debts and leaving the United
States as the main world creditor and super power. Diseases like influenza spread very fast
across the world with other epidemics which killed more than 25 million people. Besides, due to
the deaths from the war and epidemics countries around the world developed grudges and
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bitterness towards each other, such effects have been realized even today. Finally, after the world
war there required an international body that could oversee the relationships among nations and
their activities, for example, the United Nations.
2. What were the causes and significance of the Russian Revolution? What was the political and
economic situation in Russia for the first five years after the Bolsheviks seized power?
Russia was a very big empire stretching over the north of Asia with diverse cultures, religions,
and languages. With such diversity management of the people and the cities became very
difficult. To ensure that people were under control monarchy dominated the entire leadership.
With the World War 1, the peasants in the Russian empire took advantage of the unrest and
unstable government to do away with monarchical leadership. The main cause of the Russian
revolution was due to the poverty that was very dominant. The people were peasants living in
small villages and mainly depended on small-scale farming for their livelihood. Besides these
peasants owed the government a considerable amount of debts and with their outdated farming
techniques, it was almost impossible for them to pay. Thus the poverty in Russia necessitated for
a change in leadership in the attempt to get a change in their state of life.
Factories and urban centers started coming up, thus, revolutionizing the state and the
operations of the government. Industrialization came as a result of the revolution making Russia
not only composed of peasants but also with a vibrant urban workforce. Foreign investments
started taking effect, and the new government that took over from the monarchical government
became a government of the people. The people attained proper representation in the
government, and they obtained the rights to vote and choose their leaders without imposition.
With foreign investments, the peasants obtained advanced farming technology that made them
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more productive making them attain higher standards of living. With the growth in agriculture
and industrialization, Russia started advancing her technology and economy. The population of
the illiterate peasants was replaced with a young vibrant and educated young people thus
changing the overall outlook of the entire country.
Social, political and economic hardships characterized the first five years of the
Bolsheviks. First, the Bolsheviks encountered high levels of opposition forcing some of the
Russians to break and leave Russia. The Bolsheviks had only taken control of the Russian
government facilities with the hope that they would have received full support from both the
Russian people and the Germans. They only took effect and control a rectangular area about 30
miles by 400miles. The Bolsheviks had a greater political advantage to their side given that they
had the support of the military commander. Further, the Bolsheviks were led by a visionary
leader who had the will, desire and ability to lead the Russians, Linen. Through the national
council, Lenin, appointed ministers, and commissioners making their government solid and very
strong. At that time no other political party had the ability and solid structure than the
Given the state of living of the Russians before the Bolsheviks took over the leadership of
the country, it was not very easy for them to change this state abruptly. First, the government
ignored the land arrears imposed by the earlier governments on the people and thus empowering
economically to do farming more profitably and promisingly. After the Bolsheviks initiation of
the Russian revolution with the support of the Germans, the state of the economy went up
particularly with the growth of industrialization and agriculture. However, through the eruption
of the Russian civil war, most of the property was destroyed returning the people to their first
square. However, the resilience and the persistence of the president and the entire party, they
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were able to take the country through tremendous economic strides which revolutionized the
economy of Russia after that.
3. Discuss the causes and the consequences of the Cold War? What led to the collapse of the
Soviet Union?
There arose disagreements among the member states under the leadership of the Soviet Union.
Most of the countries that supported the Soviet Union wanted to be free and started withdrawing
their support to the Soviet Union. The United States and her allies wanted the unity of the
European countries while some Soviet Union allies wanted to some division in them so that they
can remain in power. The United States devised a way to ensure that the Soviet Union did not
have the influence and power to control different countries in the world. The United States
government engineered a sense of dictatorship in the countries where the Soviet Union had
seized control; withdrawing their support. This form of ideological struggle led to the cold war.
The United States had demonstrated the power and ability in the development of nuclear
weapons and hit Japan. This raised a lot of rivalry and tension in the world on the safety of
different states under the threat of the United States.
With the alliance of the United States and Europe, the Soviet Union felt threatened and
feared the attack on their territory. Countries such as England and France were indebted to the
United States who had been their allies all through. Given that the Soviet Union had a lot of
influence in Europe made the Soviet Union very strong. Scientific and technological
advancements were now the only ways in which the two antagonists could depend upon to
ensure their safety. Discoveries were made, and sophisticated weapons came as a result. All the
parties were staying in fear of an attack at any time and at the same time threatening the opposite
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sides. The silent competition between the two antagonists on who could make the best weapons
and who could win the war due to their weapon strength intensified. Finally, when the struggle
was very obvious, the United States started offering financial aid to different countries, for
example, turkey so that they could oppose communism in which the Soviet Union was
The cold war resulted in many negative effects and predicaments which affected the
world greatly both politically and economically. There was massive economic destabilization in
most of the countries around the globe particularly for those who supported the Soviet Union.
Other countries, for example, Cuba was completely hopeless and could not stand on their own
after these events. The United States started taking an active part in the affairs of the Asian
countries which resulted in conflicts and rivalries that have never stabilized to date, for example,
Vietnam and Afghanistan. Such civil and military wars resulted in the loss of lives and
destruction of property. Besides, there emerged many sophisticated weapons particularly nuclear
weapons in very many countries around the world. Thus the cold war, though it led to the fall of
the Soviet Union and communism in the world, had many disadvantages and negative influences
to different countries.
Finally, due to the internal destabilizations, Soviet Union was unable to retain their
control within their territories. With the major supporters of the Soviet Union abandoning the
union the Soviet Union was left without the necessary economic and military support to support
itself. Different countries started pursuing efforts to gain their independence and hence having a
similar effect to those who joined the United States. The pursuit of communism failed, and the
Soviet Union did not have any leverage to regain control. Thus many factors were underlying the
fall of the Soviet Union and failure of communism to take effect in most parts of the world.
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4. What will be the major sources of conflict in the second decade of the twenty century? In your
estimation is there a solution to these global issues and how?
Conflicts are likely to emerge due to the inadequacy of the available resources. With the current
trend in the depletion of the natural resources and pollution, it is possible that the resources are
decreasing with increase in the world population. The ability to sustain the high population with
limited resources will make different countries to scramble for the available resources resulting
in different conflicts. The powerful and developed economies are likely to make efforts to
assume control of these resources from the current host countries. Conflicts will arise in the
process since it will not be easy given that the host countries need them and hare independent
and sovereign countries.
Pollution is transboundary and affects the globe without regard to the economic strengths
of the country and also the contribution of the country towards the same. With the current
technological advancements and dynamism, pollution rates and levels are going up by the day.
Industrialization is giving rise to both air and water pollution. Most of the countries are under-
industrialized while others like China and the United States are very industrialized. Conflict is
likely to arise due to the adverse weather patterns and unpredictability may be a source of
conflicts between these countries. With unpredictable and adverse weather conditions food
productions and diseases and epidemics are more probably likely to arise. This is a major
drawback that can affect the world in diverse manners resulting in instability.
With the advances in technology, sophisticated and lethal weapons will be made.
Different countries will be racing to have the most complex and deadly weapons. With superior
weapons and other resources, the countries will live in fear of each other due to possible attacks
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at any time. With such weapons, countries may disregard international laws and policies thus
affecting other countries in diverse manners. The rise in fear will eventually lead to conflicts
which may be probably being in the pursuit of controlling these warheads which can result in
mass destruction. Given that countries are independent, it may not be very easy for such
countries to let such weapons to be under peoples control leading to a struggle.
All these issues can be handled through peaceful talks and negotiations between
governments and through intermediaries. Issues like pollution control should be implemented by
all countries regardless of their economic status or another criterion whatsoever. It is only
through bilateral and multilateral engagements that all these issues will be achieved. All
countries should stand and operate as equal entities in their engaging in matters that affect other
countries together with their own. An overseeing body should be established and empowered to
ensure that all countries operate within the set laws and guidelines.
Finally, different emphasis on the conservation of the natural resources in the world
should be emphasized. Different countries should ensure that they are mindful of their future
generations and assist each other in ensuring that these efforts get actualized. Countries should
also use the technology to devise solutions to the existing problems but not to instill fear in other
countries through mass production of nuclear warheads and other weapons. Countries should
acknowledge that they are all geared to one main objective, and that is not only to be influential
but also contribute positively to the life of their citizens. Thus, countries should boost positive
efforts and refrain from all activities that can result in conflicts and unsolicited struggles.

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