Organizational behaviour APA sample

International Organizational Behavior:
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International organizational behavior is an element that helps understand the current
world regarding business and interaction between people. In line with understanding the global
organizational behavior, it is of the essence to note that globalization anchors it. In that, the
context of international behavior substantially associates to globalization or coming together of
the world aspects. Managers need to be conversant with how business and people integration in
the modern era affects behavior and the issue that arose therein. It is in this context that the
changes brought in by globalization give raise various critical issues that affect businesses and
the stakeholders to a particular business. The paper will discuss various aspects signifying the
essence of understanding international dimensions of organizational behavior in ethical decision
In line with this, it is important to know the meaning of the following.
Ethics identifies as a basis in which an action is judged as either right or wrong. Hence,
carrying out ethical decisions would mean analyzing a particular decision in line with the moral
Business ethics identifies as the principles under which employees and corporations
operate in ethical, legal and affair manner. In this context, business ethics are an important
context that means bringing together businesses, employees and the society (Ferrell, &
Fraedrich, 2015).
Globalization and organizational behavior
Globalization is connected with the tremendous increase in information and knowledge
sharing among people from different countries. It is the cause of multinational corporations all
over the world. Consequently, the world has witnessed an increase in technological and
infrastructure progress. The world is characterized by cultural aspects that are widely spread and
shared among the people it is right to note that the increased level of businesses going global
there has been a significant increase in the ethical issues. Unlike a case where a company only
deals with the national borders globalization means being an international concern. In the
international context if a business does an activity which is considered unethical it is likely to
significantly affect the business (Osland, Devine, & Turner, 2001). Some of the ethical cases that
have benefit witnessed over time are that of Volkswagen Motors and Nike sweatshops scandals.
Currently, businesses are operating in a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic environment. It means
that the businesses environment directly affects the business conduct. To make proper and ethical
decisions managers require having sufficient knowledge on the dimensions of organization
International dimensions of organizational behavior entail the following
The challenges and changes in the multinational management
It is right to note that subject to multinationals spreading across the globe; business
competition has significantly heightened. As a result of competition, businesses are faced with
challenges on the proper way to produce and remain competitive in the market. Due to this,
organizations are in need of managers with critical abilities and skills that will guide an
organization in making the proper decision. The decision areas that a manager will require
focusing on include.
Employee polarization
A manager understanding the organization behavior knows that the increased competition
has resulted in squeezing of skilled middle jobs. It is a case where organizations have to move
most of their employees for fixed employment to variable employment contracts (Punnett, 2015).
It is a matter that affects the employee wages and benefits. The challenging decisions that the
managers will encounter in this context would be to choose among the employees those that are
to be moved to the variable employment bracket. Also, there is the challenge of deciding on the
proper way to attract and retain employees while still upholding the downward pressure.
Decision on efficiency
Managers have to come up with the appropriate ways to improve their businesses
activities. In this context, managers have to implement aspects as the employees training and
development. The decision in this regard involves the right employees to be trained. An
organization may concentrate on training only the middle and upper-level employees while
leaving the low-level employees. Developing the appropriate decision n this context will
contribute positively or negatively to the business.
Decision on quality
Employee’s skills and competitiveness is targeted at ensuring that employees are in a
position to produce quality goods and services. In the course of time, various businesses have
been faced with scandals involving their production decision and the quality of the products
produced. Most recently was the case of Samsung where it had to recall its products. In
connection with this, it means that managers require being highly conscious of the decisions that
they make on production decisions.
Decision on profit or revenue maximization
It is noted that in all areas businesses are subjected to stiff competition. Performance in
some cases becomes a challenge to the management and the business. On the other hand,
shareholders pressure management to enhance the performance of the entire organization,
improve profits or raise dividends. In this case, managers may be challenged on the right
decisions to make to attain the shareholder's desire. There have been cases of creative
accounting, fraudulent business or production of poor quality goods with the intention of cutting
the operation costs. The issue of profit and revenue maximization raises ethical concern on the
possible decisions that a manager may make.
Besides the above-noted challenges understanding the international dimensions of
organizational behavior helps in the following way.
a. It helps in learning the best practices and applications on how to appropriately manage
people within the global context.
In this dimension, it means that the manager is conversant on how people are likely to
react towards individual decisions made by the management. In particular, the manager estimates
the way that employees, shareholders or clients would respond if he or she undertakes an
individual decision (Kuntz et al. 2013). It is an area that provides managers with proper analysis
skills on the possible situations involving a decision. It is noted that making decisions such as the
employee training and development would call for good analysis of the situation. There is the
case of multiculturalism and is a crucial element related to the issue of globalization. In line with
this, it is noted that globalization raises cases where an employee with different cultural
background comes together. It poses a condition where there is a need for uniform culture in the
organization. Making such decision on how the organization will accommodate different cultural
and religious backgrounds would require ethical consideration.
b. Through knowledge of capability to recognize critical elements of socio-cultural diversity
A manager will make an ethical decision that may affect people if they understand the
socio-cultural elements evident in society. Subject to globalization businesses are occupying
environments characterized by people with varying customs, believe and values (Adler, &
Gundersen, 2007). In such a case where an American business expands to China, for example,
Apple, a manager will need to know the Chinese values for them to make proper decisions. It is
noted that while the Americans are individualists, the Chinese are collectivists. In China,
continued mistreatment of employees may lead to all of them refusing to come to work on a
single day. In other case, businesses are expanding to such areas as Africa where values and
cultural elements vary from that of the Americans. Having knowledge of the cultural background
of the people would be vital in not only anticipating their reactions to a decision but also to
choose a decision that the society considers ethical.
c. It is a basis for learning the attributes of organizational and personal value system
concerning global business environment.
The global environment in line with global management it calls for a unique
understanding of the personal values and the organization values. While making an organization
decision, a manager will need to consider how it will also affect the people values (Williams,
2013). For example, such country as Apple has a high reputation in the production of quality
goods and services. A management decision to produce cheaper goods would affect the quality
of its products and services. As a result, it will affect the consumer’s values and how they
perceive the products. Hence, the need to have a proper understanding that would assist one to
make the correct decision.
An effective global manager
Understanding the international dimensions of organization behavior contributes in
making one an effective global manager. An effective manager in the global context will be
characterized by the following aspects.
a) One can learn and analyze the challenges faced in the global context.
The knowledge on the possible challenges that a business is likely to face in the market is
crucial to making various decisions. An active manager is well equipped with knowledge, skills,
and techniques that will help him steer the organization to a competitive position in the market.
For example, the information systems and technology associated with various challenges, as
system failure or hacking elements. It is right to note that information systems and technology
are aimed at boosting efficiency in business activities and improving responsiveness to
customers (Chhokar, Brodbeck, & House, 2013). Also, the manager will be in a position to deal
with such challenge as efficiency and quality of the goods and services provided. It is noted that
effectiveness in production and the quality of goods and products are key competitive
b) It helps encompass aspects involved in the human resource as the training and
development, teams, leadership, and behavior.
An effective international manager must be in a position to focus on the human resources
elements in the international business context. In that, it will facilitate in understanding the forces
that affecting employees productivity. Also, while making the training and development
decision, the manager will be in a position to know the proper skills to be applied in the business
and the global levels (Griffin, 2013). For example, an active manager will facilitate in adopting
proper training and development programs that will enable an organization to have the best sales
and marketing personnel who will suitably advertise the company at the international level.
c) Provides knowledge on consumer behavior
As an international manager, one ought to be properly equipped with the information
concerning consumer behavior. It is crucial in setting the proper strategy that a business can
adopt. It is because decisions related to product quality; price, differentiation and quantity will be
suitably made with a good understanding of the consumer behavior. In connection to this,
learning the dimensions of international organizational behavior would mean that one correctly
understands how different customers would react to the production decision made (Wagner III,
& Hollenbeck, 2014). It is a context that facilitates in making other decisions. For example, an
active manager will be in a position to determine if the organization engages in corporate social
responsibility how will t affect the customer’s behavior to the company products.
d) It associates with the capability to create a tranquil, ethical and healthy environment for
the business.
A manager can only be able to create a business environment characterized by the noted
aspects if they properly understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior. It is
important to note that in the case of multinational corporation’s decisions made in one country or
ethical issues made in one country are likely to affect an entity globally. It occurs mostly in the
cases where a business is involved in unethical decisions or decisions that contribute in
tarnishing the corporate reputation. An effective manager understands that the modern social
media is capable of spreading information concerning a certain business within a short period.
There are cases where an organization is faced with a challenging event likely to cause a
significant problem to the business. A competent manager would handle the issue in a way that
he or she manages to build trust with the consumers. An example of such case is the general
motors’ scandal. The GM motors company CEO openly agreed that people died in their cars. As
a result, the company decided to pay more $900m to end the case (BBC homepage, 2015). The
manager went ahead and sent condolence messages to people who lost their families.
The concept of international organizational behavior is crucial for an entity to do well in
the market. It is a basis for making an effective manager in meeting the managerial roles. As
noted global business environment is highly dynamic, thus, there is a need for managers to be
conversant with the dimensions of the behavioral changes likely to occur. In any element of
change or challenge the way in which a manager handles a situation will determine how the
company is perceived by the stakeholders and the community.
Adler, N. J. (2006). International dimensions of organizational behavior. The International
Executive, 28(1), 31-32.
Adler, N. J., & Gundersen, A. (2007). International dimensions of organizational behavior.
Cengage Learning.
BBC homepage (17th September 2015).GM agrees a $900m settlement for faulty ignition
switches. Retrieved from
Chhokar, J. S., Brodbeck, F. C., & House, R. J. (Eds.). (2013). Culture and leadership across the
world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. Routledge.
Ferrell, O. C., & Fraedrich, J. (2015). Business Ethics: Ethical decision making & cases. Nelson
Griffin, R. W. (2013). Fundamentals of management. Cengage Learning.
Kuntz, J. R. C., Kuntz, J. R., Elenkov, D., & Nabirukhina, A. (2013). Characterizing ethical
cases: A cross-cultural investigation of individual differences, organizational climate, and
leadership on ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(2), 317-331.
Osland, J., Devine, K., & Turner, M. (2001). Organizational behavior. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Punnett, B. J. (2015). International perspectives on organizational behavior and human resource
management. Routledge.
Wagner III, J. A., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2014). Organizational Behavior: Securing competitive
advantage. Routledge.
Williams, C. (2013). Principles of management. South-Western/Cengage Learning.

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