Political Theory Research Paper

Running head: POLITICAL THEORY 1
Political Theory Research Paper
Name of student
Name of institution
The political theory involves the analysis of social thought or a belief that an individual
or a group believed to have an impact on a political, social and economic framework of a society.
It seeks to challenge or critique the existing believes of other theorist's as well as defining one's
positions regarding the governance, history and leadership style in a society. This paper will
explore various teachings and questions that arise from different theories, political aspects and
institutions, political thoughts, international relations, political culture and civil society as well as
the religious position on matters politics and governance. The paper will lay particular regards to
the biblical analysis of governance and political theory. This analysis provides the learner with a
pool of knowledge and facts that are relevant to understanding the day to day issues surrounding
the leadership, administration, and governance. Besides, this knowledge equips the learners with
necessary skills that allow him to look at the bigger picture when analyzing situations and also
view fundamental political issues from a different point of view.
Just Politics and Governance
Just politics and governance is the acts and behaviors of the political leaders to that seem
morally right and fair before their subjects. Leaders are entrusted with power and leadership
positions by the electorates. The subjects expect service delivery by their leaders, and it is the
responsibility of the elected leaders to perform their mandate with diligence and utmost
commitment. The electorates are tasked with the responsibility of keeping their leaders on toes
by fast-tracking their performance. Leaders need to be accountable to the citizens in service
delivery and utilization of public resources. Leaders are expected to exercise justice, compliance
with law and impartiality while discharging their mandate (Hobbes et al., 1995). They need to
demonstrate a high level of integrity and professionalism in their conduct and service delivery.
Since leaders are representatives of people who elected them, they should act objectively and
represent the interest of the people. They should not discriminate on particular groups
irrespective of their political affiliations. Leaders are expected to serve all their constituents
equally without any regard of their social status, financial positions, religious affiliation, race,
ethnicity or political inclinations. Additionally, every leader has to protect, respect and uphold
the laws of the land as well as representing the interests of their constituents. On the other hand,
the subject has duties of electing the best leaders to represent them as well as to remove the
leaders from the positions. In democratic leadership, the citizens are obliged to elect their leaders
through secret ballots. The citizens take part in making critical decisions in government through
their elected leaders. The citizens have right to re-elect leaders who perform well and also vote
out leaders who fail to perform to their satisfaction. In order to ensure that justice is served to the
citizen, there should be effective systems to ensure and respect of the law of the land. This
requires the commitment by law enforcement agents, the civil society, members of the public and
political goodwill by the elected leaders (Hobbes et al., 1995).
According to the theory of Forms or theory of ideas by Plato, he argues that non-physical
but substantial ideas represent the most accurate reality. He does not believe in confrontational
approaches of finding the solution to a problem. He considers classical approaches to solving
problems that affect the society. Plato considers the rational approach of finding a solution to the
prevailing problems as the most feasible and effective approach of problem-solving. As such, the
relationship between the political leaders and the subjects should not be a confrontation in the
quest for justice delivery of service. The relation between the two groups ought to be based on
ideas and facts in order to promote cohesion and integration of the nation.
Responsibility of Citizens
It is the responsibility of citizens to ensure good governance by emphasizing on the
transparency and accountability of the government of the day. This allows citizens to participate
in governance process as they engage in various decision-making processes and forums of the
government. The citizens need to create an environment within the political space that allows
them to express their views openly without fear of intimidation by the ruling class. The
environment should create sufficient mechanism to incorporate citizen participation in matters of
national importance in governance. This endeavor sets a good precedency of leadership and
increases the democratic space for the citizens and future generations as well. Better education
and literacy among the citizens is critical in safeguarding citizen power in any leadership. This is
because, with better education, the voting preferences of people have a better basis and can affect
the policy-making in governance (Hobbes et al., 1995). Citizens have the responsibility of
participating in institutions of public discussions. These institutions can be social forums,
meetings, national televisions and social media platforms. These discussions promote
improvements in good governance and ownership of the programs. The public discussions
increase public awareness on the benefit of various policy measures that seek to increase social
warfare. Additionally, the public debates of government programs tend to increase the
compliance by policymakers. It is quite instrumental in reducing the undue advantage of various
interest groups that negatively influences several processes of good governance. The debates
increase awareness by the citizens of their active roles and participation in matters of national
interest. This is crucial as it goes a long way in promoting good governance (Hobbes et al.,
The citizens should endeavor to strengthen their relationship with the government. This
can be done through citizens' participation in various sectors including agriculture, education,
health and mass media. This creates close ties between the government and its citizens, and as
such, there is sharing of thoughts and opinion between both parties. According to Thomas
Hobbes theory on modern political philosophy, he talks about the need for liberal thought and the
natural equality of all men. He urges that legitimate powers must be representative and should be
based on the consent of the people or rather the citizens. Hobbes further gives the significance of
the liberal interpretation of the law. The law provides people the freedom to do whatever the law
does not forbid. The law provides for citizens the freedom of liberty in choices they make as well
as in what there freely express. Every citizen should have a voice in policy decisions either
directly or through laid down institutions that represent their interest. This participation is built
on the ability to participate constructively and on the freedom of association. The participation
promotes economic activities which are crucial in the eradication of poverty and promoting
national growth and development (Hobbes et al., 1995).
It is the responsibility of the citizens to observe the rule of law in order to enable
government implements its agenda. The government needs effective support and goodwill by the
members of the public in order to effectively fulfill its promises to the people. The citizens have
the duty of paying taxes timely and promptly to enable government runs its operations smoothly
(Hobbes et al., 1995). Additionally, citizens are charged with the duty of care and protection of
life and property. They need to protect the environment as well as other government resources
which also serve as a source of revenue to the government. These include natural resources such
as forest, water sources, and wildlife. The government requires the support of citizens and
institution in order to make the best use of resources as well as create an excellent environment
to usher trade and investments. This is important as it goes a long way in providing job
opportunities as well as national development (Hobbes et al., 1995).
Quest for Justice
Many global south economies are faced with problems resulting from misrule as well as
disrespect of independent institutions including the electoral bodies and judicial systems by the
ruling class. This has seen the outright subversion of the will of people during elections,
deprivation of citizens of their rights and fundamental freedoms, police brutality, extra-judicial
killings of activists as well as looting of public resources by the government officials. This is
evidenced by many political leaders retain positions with impunity even when voted out by the
citizens. This amounts to putting the will of people on trial and in most cases leads to ethnic
clashes and violence. This causes massive loss of living, destruction of properties and disruption
of economic activities. There have been cases of citizens deprived their legal rights and freedoms
by the government of the day. Some have had their freedom of expression deprived due to fear of
intimidation by the ruling government. There have been cases of people detained without trial as
well as extra-judicial killing on those who fight with the ruling regime. These are a case of
outright contravention of human rights by the governments. These cases instill fear on the citizen
as their lives are always threatened by the ruling administration. It calls for courage and self-
sacrifice by individuals, human right activists, and civil societies to expose the government
failures and the quest for justice (Jeremey, 1948). To demand justice in such regimes require a
bold and selfless individual who has other people's interest at heart. Human right activist and the
civil society have been in the front line in the quest for justice and respect of human rights by the
ruling administration. These groups have staged demonstrations to demand the release of
political detainees, demanding the investigations on the killings of political activists and
demanding the amendment on the constitutions. These groups fight for better leadership and
society for not only themselves but also for the future generation. This is an act of selflessness
and self-determination to pursue the noble cause. These groups are motivated by the need to seek
happiness and pleasure in their land. According to theorist Jeremy Bentham, in his book
Introduction to the Principles of Moral and Legislation, he believes that happiness is the only
thing that is good for its sake. He believed that humans by nature are motivated by the desire to
have the pleasure and strive by all means to maximize it. Bentham tries to establish what a
system of law would look if it were constructed on a purely utilitarian basis (Jeremey, 1948). He
also establishes how pleasure and pain need to be measured as well as legally and morally
relevant human actions that contribute to the pleasure. In his book, he also discusses the negative
consequences of the quest for pleasure (Jeremey, 1948). According to Bentham, to attain
pleasure is not a walk in the park. It requires persistent struggle and determination to get
happiness, especially where the systems are not friendly. To achieve the satisfaction, one has to
pay the price which comes with sacrifice, suffering and even taking the risk. In this respect,
individuals, civil societies, and human right activists have paid the ultimate sacrifice to ensure
adherence to human right, respect for the rule and restoration of sanity and justice in the
Biblical Analysis
In the history of humanity, religion and politics have been perceived to be inseparable.
Christianity being one of the dominant religions in the world is diverse and is constantly
changing with the society. Christianity as a religion has its ideologies, influence and shared
networks across the globe. Since this religion is practiced at the state level as well as globally
must impact the national political systems.
In the Bible, God chose leaders who were bold and courageous to lead his people. The
biblical leaders or king were expected to heed to the guidelines of God failure to which God's
wrath would come before them (Proverbs 16:1). Moses was a bold leader, and thus God chose
him to lead the Israelite out of Egypt. The leadership role God gave to Moses was a sign of trust
and confidence that God had for him. As a leader, one was expected to exhibit utmost confidence
and commitment to the noble responsibility. Similarly, in modern leadership, every political
leader is required to be courageous bold in order to protect the citizen from enemies as well as
protect the throne. There are also the consequences of failing to deliver the promises just the
same way there were consequences of failing to adhere to God's instructions. The political leader
who fails to deliver his mandate loses his thrown, gets embarrassed and loses respect and trust
from the citizens (Proverbs 16:1).
According to the biblical teachings, leaders were expected to assume a high level of
responsibility in their duties. There were also respected and trusted by their subjects as they were
chosen by God. These leaders were chosen and anointed by God, therefore, exercised authority
over their subjects. The Bible gives the account of King David whom God trusted very much that
he chose him to be the king right at a very tender age. He was anointed by God while youth and
even was made several achievements during his regime as a king. God bestowed upon him
several responsibilities including killing Goliath despite his tender age. Similarly, in modern
politics, a leader starts positioning herself or himself for the leadership positions right from
school. These leaders assume a certain level of responsibility right from childhood and make
several achievements during their tenure. The political leaders are, however, expected to put their
trust in God, trust in their ability to execute their mandate and protects and safeguard the interest
of their constituents (Proverbs 16:16).
In the Bible, God used to send his Angels to warn leaders and people against the
repercussions of the sins and the punishment that would befall them if they did not repent of their
sins and desist from evil ways. God further sent Messiah on earth, to die so that people can be
forgiven their sins and to end poor leadership. God did so during the time of crises or when
people turned their ways against God. Similarly, during regime crises, religion has played a key
role in condemning political repression and social marginalization. The religion also takes part in
correcting government failures as well as preaching peace and national cohesion. This is a
reflection of the biblical teachings on the need for harmony, unity, and peace while coexisting as
a group of people who share similar qualities just as the man was created in the image and
likeness of God (Proverbs 16:7).
Political Violence
Political violence is a serious threat to the national security, political stability and
economic development of a country. In this state, there is ethnic clashes, war, breach of rights of
citizens, the suffering of people as well as massive deaths. Since this is a state of insecurity, there
is massive destruction of properties as well as economic activities disrupted. Poverty strikes
which lead to starvation and diseases. People live in fear as their movements are restricted by the
security forces. Such a situation in a country can be caused by coup, civil war or perhaps ethnic
The coup in a political leadership occurs when civilians or security forces overthrow an
elected leader in a country. During his time the country becomes highly polarized, and there is
always insecurity in the country due to war. These situations occur when individuals conspire to
commit the crime due to their selfish gains at the expense of the stability of the nation.
Alternatively, individual may be compelled by public demand to overthrow the government of
the day for misrule and dictatorship leadership style of the ruling regime. In both cases, there is
always the high probability of violence and political instability. To combat the incidence, leaders
should exercise their powers over the citizens within the confine of the constitution, respect the
rule of law and engage the citizens in the decision-making process (Hobbes et al., 1995).
A civil war is a war between citizens of the same country that involves organized groups
with the aim to control the county by a particular group or a particular region of the country or to
achieve independence for the region. The civil war causes the massive death of people and even
destruction of properties. Many people are left landless will others flee their country and become
a refugee in foreign nations. Most of the incidences of civil are caused by power-hungry and
selfish political leaders who incite a group of people against other groups. In addition, it is
caused by the deprivation of social justice and unfair distribution of national resources. In order
to ensure national cohesion, there should be an equitable distribution of resources across the
board. There should also be a proper engagement of all the leaders in order to ensure inclusivity
in sharing of the national cake. Again, leaders need to be role model and to preach peace and
harmony of the nation (Hobbes et al., 1995).
Ethic conflict occurs when war erupts between two or more ethnic groupings in a
country. It causes death and destruction of property as well. It also breeds hostility between the
feuding ethnic groups. The incidences are caused by raids or cattle rustling, inequitable
distribution of national resource and issues of land settlement. One of the ethnic groups may feel
shortchanged during in sharing of the resources, and this causes hatred on other groups.
Additionally, the hostility may result from one of the groups being marginalized by the
government and therefore turn against other groups in an attempt to recover what they may term
as rightfully theirs. In such instances, ethnic conflict occurs and can affect the whole country if
effective measures are not put in place. The political leaders have to be crusaders of peace,
ensuring equality in the distribution of resources and compliance with the law in discharging
their mandate. The government of the day is more especially, charged with the responsibility of
ensuring cohesion and integration across various ethnic groupings of the country. In order to
reconcile the feuding groups, the government needs to bring all the political leaders on board,
especially those from the warring groups, identify the causes and find the long-term solutions
going forward (Hobbes et al., 1995).
The Bible, Revision of the American Standard Version, Essential Qualities of a Godly Leader:
Book of Proverbs 16:1-24.
Hobbes, Thomas (1995). Reynolds, Noel; Saxonhouse, Arlene, Eds. Three Discourses: A
Critical Modern Edition of Newly Identified Work of the Young Hobbes.
University of Chicago Press.
Jeremey Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. New York:
Hafner Publishing Co., 1948, p. 1.

Place new order. It's free, fast and safe

550 words

Our customers say

Customer Avatar
Jeff Curtis
USA, Student

"I'm fully satisfied with the essay I've just received. When I read it, I felt like it was exactly what I wanted to say, but couldn’t find the necessary words. Thank you!"

Customer Avatar
Ian McGregor
UK, Student

"I don’t know what I would do without your assistance! With your help, I met my deadline just in time and the work was very professional. I will be back in several days with another assignment!"

Customer Avatar
Shannon Williams
Canada, Student

"It was the perfect experience! I enjoyed working with my writer, he delivered my work on time and followed all the guidelines about the referencing and contents."

  • 5-paragraph Essay
  • Admission Essay
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Argumentative Essay
  • Article Review
  • Assignment
  • Biography
  • Book/Movie Review
  • Business Plan
  • Case Study
  • Cause and Effect Essay
  • Classification Essay
  • Comparison Essay
  • Coursework
  • Creative Writing
  • Critical Thinking/Review
  • Deductive Essay
  • Definition Essay
  • Essay (Any Type)
  • Exploratory Essay
  • Expository Essay
  • Informal Essay
  • Literature Essay
  • Multiple Choice Question
  • Narrative Essay
  • Personal Essay
  • Persuasive Essay
  • Powerpoint Presentation
  • Reflective Writing
  • Research Essay
  • Response Essay
  • Scholarship Essay
  • Term Paper
We use cookies to provide you with the best possible experience. By using this website you are accepting the use of cookies mentioned in our Privacy Policy.