PRESCRIBING TRENDS 13
generation medications” (Gilmer et al., 2007 p. 1008). The researchers investigated participants
receiving SGAPs treatments, time spent in polypharmacy; patients admitted as well the cost of
pharmaceuticals. The findings were patients undergoing SGAP medication increased by 10.4%
in 2004 “(from 3.3% in 1999 to 13.7% in 2004)” (Gilmer et al., 2007, p. 1007). Consequently, it
was observed that the cost of antipsychotic treatment increased from $ 4,128 to $ 5,231. The
percentage of those under second-generation polypharmacy, receiving the treatment for twelve
months, was observed to increase by 9.3%, which was from 5.1% to 14.4%. “Annual expenditure
on antipsychotic medication saw the largest gains of any therapeutic class, increasing from $ 250
million in 1999 to $ 719 million in 2004,” (Gilmer et al., 2007, p. 1010). However, this did not
reflect to reduce in antipsychotic patient admission or improvement in adherence to treatment.
Similarly, from the study, there is a major concern for the hiking costs for antipsychotic
medications in Medicaid programs. Consequently, this leads to increased examination of SGAP
prescriptions, which results to the dictation of the practice to reduce the high costs. Therefore,
the cost of medication is another factor influencing decision-making for prescribing
antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia.
On other studies, it has been revealed that advanced antipsychotics have a superior
effectiveness over conventional ones. A study done by Koro et al. (2002) investigated effects
exhibited by Olanzapine as well as Risperidone exposure to patients who have schizophrenia.
They focused on the risk of hyperlipidemia in these patients. This study used data obtained from
England and Wales (General Practice Research Database) that included 3.5 million individuals.
“A total of 18309 individuals diagnosed as having schizophrenia were identified,” (Koro et al.,
2002, p. 1021). They used “conditional logistic regression” in deriving “adjusted odds ratios
(ORs), controlling for sex, age, and other medications and diseases influencing lipid levels,”