specific expressions differed among different ecological areas before 1944. The second question
attempted to establish whether the country had experienced any changes in urban racial violence
in the post-World War II period, up to about 1960. Finally, the third question sought to establish
whether it was possible to predict the future of racial social violence. This structure leads
Grimshaw to an organized presentation that is easy to follow and comprehend.
Right from the outset of the paper, Grimshaw brings out the wide social divide that
existed in the American society for the period covered in the study. This divide forms the
foundation of Grimshaw’s work. Despite the existence of other races in the United States during
the period studied, the author focused on two races only, Negros and whites. The topic of the
article, however, has the impression of generalization of all the races in the United States. The
research questions also seem to take a generalized approach. This observation can have a number
of implications. First, it probably reflects the nature of the writing culture at the time. Second,
urban violence in the United States during the period covered might have been a two-race fight
between whites and Negros. Finally, the patterns exhibited by other races may have been
insignificant to influence the overall picture in the view of the author. The focus on two races
helps maintain focus throughout the article. It also simplifies the flow, structure and presentation
of the topic.
Grimshaw remains impartial in his presentation by basing arguments on data and
observations from real world events. The author cites data from various sources, including
statistics on previous riots to support his argument. For instance, Grimshaw notes the reported
figures on deaths and other variables in the 1919 Chicago riot as well as the 1943 disturbance in
Detroit. An impartial position helps Grimshaw build credibility and cultivate trust in readers.
This perspective also implies that the conclusions made following the findings of the study are