Psychological Disorders in DSM

Psychological Disorders in DSM-5
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Psychological Disorders in DSM-5
The term psychological disorder is a term that has been used to refer to the mental
disorders or psychiatric disorders (mania). Psychological disorders are the patterns of behavioral
symptoms that cause brain instabilities. Disorders are often caused by several activities that
include relationship problems, conflicts, among others. According to Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), there are several categories of mental or psychological
disorders that have been seen to be affecting the people immensely. Below is a discussion of one
of the psychological disorders stated in DSM-5 based on its etiology, symptoms, interventions,
and controversial issues.
Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a psychological and mental disorder that is often characterized by
changes in activities, moods, energy levels, and behaviors. One of the etiological causes of
bipolar disorder is depression. Other primary causes include abuse, stress, daily activities,
behaviors, emotions, among others. Once an individual develops bipolar disorder, he or she will
start to develop some symptoms that include fluctuation of emotions, depression, and mania.
Therefore, bipolar disorder is the psychological illness that needs proper attention and
management. On the other hand, there are several biological, social, psychological, and genetic
factors that contribute to the development of bipolar disorder. One of the biological factors that
can trigger the development of bipolar disorder is a chronic illness. In most cases, people who
have other incurable diseases can easily develop depression and stress that can result in the
development of bipolar disorder. Another biological factor is genetics. This is the study of genes
and variations in the bodies of human beings. In this case, if an individual realizes that his or her
family is not the original family, mental and psychological disorders will start to develop. In
other words, an individual will start to develop stress and depression because of the family
problems. Based on the psychological factors that cause bipolar disorder, these are the factors
that associate with the mind of an individual. One of these factors is the emotions. Emotions or
feelings are the main influences of bipolar disorder. When an individual is hurt emotionally, he
or she might feel depressed and the next thing is to develop some kind of psychological
disorders. Emotions often come due to the daily activities that may hurt or cause discomfort to an
individual. Besides emotions as the psychological factor behind the development of bipolar
disorder, stress and hostility is also another factor. Stress comes in when a person has lacked
something such as basic needs. As a result, bipolar disorder develops with time until the patient
reaches a stage of a bipolar disorder that is known as Bipolar Disorder II. The same thing applies
to hostility. Being hostile to an individual can cause a psychological instability that may lead to
the development of bipolar disorders. On the other hand, social factors can also be the reason
behind the development of bipolar disorders. These include relationships, love, and physical
activities. When there is a problem in love and relationship, an individual may develop bipolar
disorder due to severe depression. Therefore, bipolar disorders can be caused by several factors
that may be controlled by undergoing therapy and counseling.
Major Symptoms
There are several warning signs and symptoms that can be seen from a patient suffering
from bipolar disorder according to ‘Warning Signs and Symptoms’ article. These symptoms vary
due to the status of a person and the level of depression. If a person has a high level of bipolar
disorder, for instance, Bipolar Disorder II, his or her symptoms will be severe and easily
noticeable. But in the early stages, bipolar disorder cannot be recognized in an individual. It will
just involve the psychological symptoms that cannot be seen physically.
Lack of sleep
One of the major symptoms of bipolar disorder is lack of sleep. Patients who suffer from
bipolar disorders often encounter sleep difficulties. This is because of depression and stress.
Therefore, a patient or an individual who is always awake during the nights might be suffering
from a bipolar disorder.
Mood Swings
Another symptom of a bipolar disorder is the development of mood swings. This is a
sudden change in moods and emotions of a patient. Continuous change in moods for a long time
depicts the development of a bipolar disorder.
Loss of Appetite
Often times, patients with bipolar disorders cannot eat much. This is an observable
symptom because a patient can stop eating because of stress and depression that can result in a
psychological disorder. Therefore, loss of appetite is an indication of a bipolar disorder in some
of the individuals.
Impulsive Drug Usage
Another primary symptom of a bipolar disorder is impulsive consumption of drugs. In
most cases, people who have bipolar disorders try to regulate their stress and depression by
taking a lot of drugs such as alcohols. They consume a lot of drugs uncontrollably with the aim
of reducing psychological disorders.
Speech Pressure
Rapid speech is the most common symptom of a bipolar disorder. People who tend to
develop bipolar disorders can talk rapidly without standing on the same point. This kind of
people is seen to be jumping from one conversation to another. In other words, they are not
stable psychologically.
Task Incompletion
Another well-known symptom of bipolar disorder is the inability to complete tasks. In
this situation, an individual may not complete the given works, especially in a working
environment. He or she will partially perform tasks and always leaving with a lot of excuses.
This shows that the person is not stable in his or her mind.
Poor Attention
Poor attentiveness is another main symptom of a bipolar disorder. This symptom is seen
during the conversation with an affected person, or during the mass meetings. An individual may
not concentrate but instead, focus on other things or just keep quiet without responding to other
Suicide Attempt
Of all the other bipolar disorder symptoms, the suicide attempt is the most recognized
symptom. It is clear that a person attempts a suicide because of mental disorder or depression. A
person will attempt to kill himself or herself because of several reasons. In this situation, the
status of the disorder will be higher.
Impacts of Strengths, Resiliency, and Cultural Factors in establishing a Coping Strategies
In most healthcare organizations, bipolar disorder has been remedied by encompassing
different forms of treatment. The organizations and therapists have focused on strengths,
resiliencies, and cultural factors in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Oedegaard, Berk, Berk &
Oedegaard, 2013). Therefore, focusing on these three strategies have impacted the families and
individuals in establishing the positive coping strategies of bipolar disorders and all forms of
depression. One of the ways in which focusing on resiliency, strengths, and cultural factors in
establishing the positive coping strategies is that the patients suffering from bipolar disorders
will get proper intervention and medication. For instance, if a therapist focuses on the strengths
that can be applied to this particular disorder, a patient will be positively impacted because of the
outcomes. A bipolar disorder patient will get some ideas and methods of relieving stress and
depression that may lead to disorder.
On the other hand, focusing on the cultural factors as a way of treatment or assessment
can impact the patient positively by allowing him or her to establish a positive coping strategy.
Cultural factors such as the way of life, education, and others, can be the best interventions to be
used. In most of the cases, individuals develop bipolar disorders because of stress and biological
factors. So if the therapists and nurses will focus on the cultural factors to diminish bipolar
disorder, patients will start establishing positive strategies for bipolar disorders. They will learn
how to solve the cultural issues causing the bipolar disorders. When focusing on the cultural
assessments, families are the population to be considered. Bipolar disorders can affect the family
because of the cultural factors that are unavoidable. Therefore, for the bipolar disorders to be
fully cured in the family, therapists and psychologists should focus on the cultural factors and
find the means of solving them.
Resiliency is also another treatment or assessment method that should be focused when
remedying bipolar disorders on individuals and families. This is a way of recovering and
avoiding difficulties that can result in the bipolar disorders. Focusing on resiliency can result in
significant approaches that can make individuals and families establish positive strategies for
bipolar disorder. The reason why focusing on this factor as a treatment method will be of
significance is that patients suffering from bipolar disorders will acquire skills used to fight the
disorder. Patients will thus establish positive coping strategies that can reduce bipolar disorders
in all means.
Treatment and Intervention of Bipolar Disorder
There are several ways of treating and reducing bipolar disorders in the family or in an
individual life (Vieta, Salagre, Grande, Carvalho, Fernandes, Berk & Suppes, 2018). Literally,
treating bipolar disorders depend on the stages- Bipolar Disorder I, and Bipolar Disorder II. The
early stages of bipolar disorder have some kind of interventions that need to be used. The same
thing applies to the critical stage of bipolar disorder. But generally, bipolar disorders have the
common treatment and intervention methods that are used by therapists and psychologists to
intervene a family or an individual.
One of the treatment and intervention methods that have been researched to be effective
is using therapies. These are rehabilitation from various experienced groups such as support
groups. In this treatment option, patients suffering from bipolar disorder are given
psychoeducation that encompasses mental health education and methods of solving the situation.
Psychoeducation is normally given by the experienced support groups that understand the ways
of treating bipolar disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy is another form of therapy that is used
to treat bipolar disorder. These are the talks that are used to modify the negative thoughts of an
individual and give him or her positive thoughts that establish a positive coping strategy for the
disorder. Therefore, therapy is the best way of treating and intervening bipolar disorder in the
Another effective way of treating a bipolar disorder is using medication. The medications
such as Anticonvulsants, Antipsychotics, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) can
be effectively used to prevent seizures, depressions, and other symptoms of psychiatric
conditions. Medications can be provided by the supportive care units in the nursing homes or any
health organization that has therapeutic treatment options.
Using specialists also is another significant treatment option that has been researched to
be effective. Specialists such as Psychiatrists, Clinical Psychologists, and Primary Care Provider
(PCP) are the best person to handle the patients with bipolar disorders. What these specialists do
is that they primarily treat mental disorders by using medications. They also provide counseling
that may prevent bipolar disorders to the depressed individuals.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is another secondary intervention and treatment
method for bipolar disorder. This method is used when all the other treatment methods such as
medication have failed. In this method, anesthetics and muscle relaxants are used. Typically,
ECT can last for one and half minutes. When all the procedures are followed, a patient can
recover in the next five to ten minutes depending on the level of bipolar disorder. Therefore,
when all the medication and therapeutic methods fail, ECT can be alternatively used.
Controversial Issues in Treatment and Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder
There are several controversies surrounding the treatment and diagnosis of bipolar
disorder. These are debated issues that agree and disagree on some of the treatment of the
disorder. However, interpreting the DSM criteria have aroused major concerns when it comes to
treatment of bipolar disorders. Some of the treatments can be compromised when they are used
in place of others. For instance, using the diagnostic forms of treatment of Bipolar Disorder II to
treat Bipolar Disorder I may result in compromised treatment. In other words, the treatment can
distract attention from the families or an individual because of change in genetics.
Therefore, there are a number of controversial issues in the treatment and diagnosis of
Bipolar Disorder (Elkin, Shea, Watkins, Imber, Sotsky, Collins & Fiester, 1989). One of the
controversial issues is the use of antidepressants as the BD medication. Several arguments have
been posted that are against the antidepressant drugs. Several people argue that using the
antidepressant drug is not an effective method of treating bipolar disorder because it can cause
other distractive psychological problems. The current research, however, does not support this
treatment method.
Another controversial issue is an argument that concerns Neuroleptics. Several people
have argued whether Neuroleptics should be used for long-term basis or not. Since these are the
mood stabilizers, they should be used for a specific period. According to the research, this
treatment method has no proof that it can permanently cure bipolar disorder. It has posed a
controversy that if a patient uses Neuroleptics and leave them as soon as he or she recovers, a
new episode of disorder will develop. This is because of improper use of the drug. Therefore, it
has been argued that Neuroleptics are not so much effective in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder,
but it can cure it to some extent.
Is there any difference between the treatment for Bipolar Disorder I and Bipolar Disorder
II? This has been a controversy because several people have not differentiated the diagnosis.
Some of the people believe that bipolar disorder I and bipolar disorder II has no difference, while
others believe that there is a big difference. But the fact is that therapists and psychologists use
all sorts of treatment regardless of the stage of BD.
Impact of Rural Environment on the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder
The treatment and diagnosis of bipolar disorder depend on an environment. For instance,
the rural environment can have diverse impacts on bipolar disorder. One is that it has no reliable
personnel that may treat the disorder. Since the rural environment is composed of most illiterate
individuals, the treatment of bipolar disorder may not be effective. This shows that the rural
environment has an impact on the treatment and diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Although there are
few impacts of the rural environment on the disorder, most medications are not found therein.
Therefore, if someone has started developing bipolar disorders, it would be difficult to handle the
situation in the rural environment. But the typical aspect is that bipolar disorder can be cured in
all the environments depending on the availability of the resources and experienced personnel.
In conclusion of the research, DSM-5 has a list of psychiatric disorders that can affect the
family and individuals. Bipolar disorders are one of the most researched psychological diseases
that has affected most of the bipolar. Therefore, the paper has researched all the etiology of the
disorder, its factors, symptoms, interventions, and controversial issues in the treatment and
diagnosis of bipolar disorder. All the issues of the disorder have been addressed, and the possible
solutions to be taken into consideration.
Vieta, E., Salagre, E., Grande, I., Carvalho, A. F., Fernandes, B. S., Berk, M., ... & Suppes, T.
(2018). Early intervention in bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, appi-ajp.
Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins, J. F., ... & Fiester, S. J.
(1989). National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research
program: General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of general psychiatry, 46(11),
Oedegaard, C., Berk, M., Berk, L., & Oedegaard, K. (2013). Socio-cultural challenges in the
management of bipolar disorder: a trans-cultural study by the International Society for
Bipolar Disorders. Bipolar Disorders, 15, 63.

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