Research Design Paper

Research Design Paper
Author’s Name:
Institutional Affiliation:
Research question and hypothesis
Research question: If railway stations are seen as non-places within society, points of transit
and nothing more, how will it be possible to make it a place fullness at the Central Station in
Hypothesis: People who use railway transport save a lot of money and it is convenient for long
distances but consumes more time to reach the destination.
I believe my prediction railway transport will save money, carry bulk goods as well as a
convenient way of transportation. Considering products and distance to travel, then Central
Station in Breda remains the place to be. Railway transport has got neglected for quite a long
time but with the technology and modernization has led to much development in Central Station
in Breda.
Time design: A cross-sectional study is the best way to gather data about my topic. All
records about Central Station in Breda statistics from the 1855-2018 are public record, which is
very easy to obtain. I don’t need to create a cohort study because I’m following events in the past
and not in the future. Cohort study will try to find an exposure (a variable that will cause a
result), but before I conduct my research, I have limited myself to only two exposures: distance
and time (Adler & Clark, 2015). These two exposures will and have always occurred in Central
Station in Breda development over time, so I don’t think I need to study future cases. With these
two exposures at hand, I could find patterns and what their relationship to the dependent variable
(place fullness). It will be an excellent methodology for my research because it would be
inexpensive and the data collection process won’t take long (all data is collected on readily
available sources) (Adler & Clark, 2015). The disadvantages of a cross-sectional study should
be limited because the time-order can get established (night travels).
Method: I will be using available data. I will be using secondary data and existing data.
Secondary data is data collected by someone else, in this case, Alexander’s research, which has
been released to the public (Adler & Clark, 2015). Secondary data collection would align with
my study because of the unit of analysis in my and Alexander’s research places fullness at the
Central Station in Breda (Adler & Clark, 2015).
For testing reliability, since all of my data is secondary so that safety can be a big
problem. I can’t be entirely sure that the information I collect measures the distance between the
railway stations 100% accuracy. I can’t figure out the traveling plans of all People. Travelling
might not be the best measures to determine place fullness of Railway of Breda.
Sampling: My units of analysis are placed fullness of Railway Breda. My sampling frame
consists of people who use railway transport regularly and for long distances. I will choose my
sample by finding which people have that characteristic in my sampling frame- people who use
railway transport periodically and for long distances. The sampling technique I will use is
purposive sampling. As a researcher, I have determined people who use railway transport
regularly and for long distances are the right elements that will serve in my investigation. It is a
very convenient sample for me. It is suitable because I can access the data quickly.
Ethical Principles
All the information obtained is public record. I’m sure a lot of People don’t want their
mode of transport and goods transported to be listed in an academic journal (Alexander &
Hamilton, 2015). As a result, I should not register which People had used railway as a mode of
transport. If Alexander agrees to be involved with my study, I should check my interpretation of
his work and see if I was right in my analysis. If Alexander thinks that I misinterpreted his
research, I should validate my literature review until Alexander is satisfied.
All the information obtained is public record, so this doesn’t apply to my work. I should
inform the participants that their answers will be kept anonymous and confidential.
My results could spark the particular interest of many people who use railway transport
regularly, and for long distances, I could receive a generous donation from one of these users of
Central Station in Breda:
For the public, I think that they should know the advantages and disadvantages of using
Central Station in Breda. It can place an unfair disadvantage Central Station in Breda especially
(Sando, 2014).
Data analysis:
Levels of Measurement
The three indicators of distance can be in the level of Ratio. The three categories: 0-999
miles, 1,000-1,999 miles, and 2000 extra miles are categories with a standard range from one
another. Notice that every possible number of miles is accounted for Thus, all the groups are
mutually exclusive (a component of ordinal levels of measurement). “Distance Travelled” carries
a ranked-order system from least to greatest; therefore, my data analysis has ordinal variables,
but it isn’t ordinal because, after my data collection, I’m going to calculate the mean of railway
transport compared to other means of transport. With ordinal data, you can’t calculate the mean.
“Distance Travelled” intends to establish numbers. Thus, all of my data is based on ratio data.
The mean has been designed to summarize both interval level and ratio level variables. My
results would fit in the ratio data category because the number ‘0’ indicates that a phenomenon
never occurred. Like ordinal levels of data, ratio levels of data can have its groups be in a ranked
order. The order is ascending: 0-999 miles, 1,000-1,999 miles, and 2000 extra miles.
Quantitative analysis technique
I would use frequency distributions. Why am I using these: what can you learn from
them? Frequency distributions are involved with percentages. The word ‘frequency’ in research
terms means the number of times a phenomenon occurs. I would add up all the people that
experienced each event and railway transport. These percentages are a pretty good way of
showing a comparison between the ordinal groups, the distances traveled.
I will visit Central Station in Breda. Thus, I will be watching how many people board the
train, which is very inexpensive and simple. By looking at borders, a person can’t see the effects
traveling have on a passenger. With that understanding, I could make theories of exactly how or
why the time of traveling affects railway transport. I would need to watch out for the reliability
of my observations and my ability to generalize.
Qualitative Interviewing
I would like to conduct a semi-structured interview with current and past management at
Central Station in Breda because through interviewing these people; I can hear their stories about
their experience day and night railway travelers (Alexander & Hamilton, 2015). Before the
interview begins, I shall create a list of topics that I want to cover and possibly develop questions
that are related to those topics at hand. If I make these lists ahead of time, I can re-word some of
the problems, where to place follow-up questions and tell if the topics at hand are appropriate for
my respondents. The semi-structured approach works best when the researcher knows in advance
what type of questions will be in the interview, the interviewer can speak the same language as
the interviewee, and the interviewer can apply the same information to all interviewees (Adler &
Clark, 2015).
For sampling purposes, I would first need to get in contact with the Central Station in
Breda management. If that were not possible, I would use my networks (twitter, facebook,
Instagram and Link in) to recruit passengers for an interview. The thing that I would have to
watch out for is generalizability. If some of the travelers recruited and identified, there is a pretty
good chance I cannot apply the results from those travelers who rarely use Central Station in
Breda. Another thing I have to look out for is how I question, respond and act in the interview
because it could affect how an interviewee responds to a question. One way to avoid this is to
establish a rapport with the interviewees (Alexander & Hamilton, 2015). I can create a rapport
through matching. The theory behind pairing is that if the interviewer and interviewee are from
similar backgrounds, the chance of an affinity might increase (Adler & Clark, 2015). It would be
unethical to lie to an interviewee about my experience, so I should become familiarized with the
history of my interviewees to lower the differences between us. Interviewees who differ from
their interviewers on essential characteristics tend to give different answers and answer
dishonestly. If I establish a rapport, the interviewee might feel guilty in responding dishonestly.
Faulty memories and miscommunication are the most significant validity concerns in qualitative
interviewing (Adler & Clark, 2015). For dealing with miscommunication, I would have to say
my thoughts about the meanings about what my interviewees said. In response, my interviewees
can tell me if I understood what they were trying to convey.
The most significant ethical concern would be to get verbal consent from my
interviewees. Verbal consent would be better for me because I can explain the purpose of the
study, offer confidentiality, and inform the interviewee that by answering questions, he or she is
giving away consent (Adler & Clark, 2015). With that mentioned, I would also make a written
consent form. The written consent form will explain more details: the identity of the researcher,
the status of the researcher’s sponsor, the purpose of the study, potential benefits, the potential
risks and who will have to access to the interview’s results. It makes the decision process clearer
for potential interviewees.
Adler, S. E., & Clark, R. (2015). An Invitation To Social Research: How It's Done. Stamford:
Cengage Learning.
Alexander, M., & Hamilton, K. (2015). A ‘placeful’station? The community role in place is
making and improving hedonic value at local railway stations. Transportation Research
Part A: Policy and Practice, 82, 65-77
Sando, M. (2014, may 18). Modelling passenger flows in public transport facilities.
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