Research methodology

3.1 Study design
The study was designed in the form of a cross-sectional survey. It is descriptive and employed both
quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Qualitative techniques were employed in
collecting data based on observations, opinions, knowledge of the sample population, and the views and
perceptions that the respondents had on how motivation affects the productivity of an organization.
Quantitative techniques were utilized in the designing of the interview questions to collect data so as to meet
the objectives of the study.
3.2 Population of the study
The employees of a private college were the respondents. The study was conducted over a sample size of 6
people. Each was required to answer ten interview questions as presented earlier.
3.3 Sampling Technique
The sampling technique that was employed for the research was convenience sampling
(Özdemir, Louis, and Topbaş 2011, p. 264). It was used because of its ability to provide a gross
estimate of the result.
3.4 Data Sources
The research made use of primary sources of data. Primary data was collected during the
study survey. They were used to provide data that was complete, accurate, and reliable.
Methods of data collection that were used include interviews of employees, managers, and
support staff at a private college.
3.5 Research Instrument/Data Collection
Interviews were conducted on six employees in a private college. Each of them was required
to respond to the ten questions presented earlier. The interviews aimed at establishing the
level of cooperation and relations among the workers and how it had affected the productivity
of the college.
3.6 Reliability and Validity
The results that were obtained remained consistent overtime. As such, the research instrument
that was used can be deemed accurate and reliable. It is also a common study instrument that
is used by most researchers.
3.7 Procedure and Time Frame
Reporting for the research was done during the third week of the semester. Preparation and
presentation of the proposal was done during the fourth week. The fifth week was used to
pretest the instruments that would be used for data measurement during the research study.
The sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks were when the actual survey was carried out. Writing of
the report and presentation to the board was done during the remaining weeks of the
3.8 Sampling Plan
This section involves the definition of the sample population that was targeted, of which it
was the employees and managers of Tesco. The sample size refers to the actual number of
individuals who were sampled and involved in the collection of the data presented in this
report. In this case, the sample was made up of 6 employees were interviewed. As such,
interviewing was the primary method that was used to collect the data that was required. That
was done in the various departments in the college.
The members of the research team applied convenient and appropriate procedures and
methods of data collection to identify respondents and collect data from the various
departments. The sample was arbitrary, hence the use of the convenient method of sampling.
That is because it is a non-probability technique and it enabled the researchers to access as
many respondents as possible.
3.9 Analytical Tools
Analysis of the data that was collected using the interviews was done using the statistical
package that is normally employed in social science research studies. Additionally, the data
was presented using a histogram, pie chart, and frequency table for pictorial interpretation.
There are ten questions that were used during the research survey. The strategy that
was used involved interviewing the six workers in the private college where each of
them was required to respond to ten interview questions. As such, different responses
were obtained in some cases. However, the workers had similar opinions in most of the
cases. That was an indication that they gave information that was accurate and had a
low level of bias. The responses that they gave were noted down and analysed to
evaluate the role that work relations play in an organization. The researchers were also
keen to establish the factors that enhance work relations in the work place. The findings
were also used to make appropriate conclusions and recommendations on the ways that
can be adopted to promote healthy relations among workers and with the managers.
The first question that was asked to the six interviewees had two sections. The first
section required the workers to explain how they felt about going to work every day.
There were mixed opinions in this case. Three of the respondents claimed that they felt
motivated and looked forward to meeting their workmates every morning. They argued
that they had cordial relations with their colleagues, making the environment
interesting. They said that they share some of their secrets with their colleagues and
share work. That has contributed to improvement in teaching and performance of
students in the college. The rest expressed their greatest fear as sharing their deep
secrets with the rest. The second part of the question required the respondents to
express their level of excitement. Those who had cordial relations with the rest were
more excited that those who had insecurities in sharing with the rest.
The second interview question was how the workers felt at the work place. It also
sought to establish their level of determination and the factors that motivated them.
Each of the six respondents had to answer this question. One of them responded that
they felt comfortable at the workplace. They said that they enjoy the relationship that
they shared with the rest of the workers and the managers. As such, their motivation for
work was high.
It was observed that workers who were motivated had a high work output and
productivity. Those who had cordial relations with others had a high performance.
They cited the good relations that they had with their workmates as one of the factors
that motivated them. They felt motivated to see their fellow teachers every morning.
Additionally, they stated that the existence of cordial relations had created a friendly
environment. As such, they were motivated by the environment. It was conducive and
enabled them to work comfortably. It also enhanced their determination and pursuit of
set goals of the private college. That contributed to the outstanding academic
performance of the private college. However, there are some of the interviewees who
lacked motivation. They included the ones who had not established any relations with
their fellow workers. They had low motivation to come to work because they did not
have individuals they could share stories. That made the work place a boring place for
them. Consequently, their work output was way much lower than that of the ones who
had good relations with others.
Another interview question was how the interviewees adapted to situations at the work
place that were otherwise difficult. Four of them argued that it was easy while the
remaining two argued that it was difficult to adapt to such challenges. The four teachers
who claimed that it was easy to adapt to difficult situations cited several ways of
handling dealing with such moments.
One of the ways that they stated was that there was a department of guiding and
counselling. The role of the department was to help the teachers solve difficult
situations. It is a free and voluntary service where the teachers approach the counsellors
for guidance when faced with challenges. However, it requires trust and the existence of
good, close relations between counsellors and the teachers. That enables them to open
up to them and seek advice.
Another way that made it easy for the teachers to adapt to difficult situations is that
they shared among themselves. That was possible because they had established relations
among themselves. As such, they had developed trust in each other such that they could
share secrets. When one had personal issues, they could share and delegate or share
duties and responsibilities. That ensured that there was a consistent and continuous
flow of work in the college. Teachers who were absent could have their subjects taught
by other teachers with whom they had established close relations and built trust. This
showed that work relations are one of the ways that contribute to continuity and flow of
work in an organization. As such, it promotes productivity and performance of the
students in the college.
The teachers who found it difficult to adapt to difficult situations include those who rarely
had relations with the other workers. As such, they did not have individuals with whom they
could share secrets and difficult moments. They lacked trust in others and so they endured
tough times when faced with such situations. That showed that the existence of good work
relations among workers can help them in enduring challenging and difficult times in the
career. It also reduces the cases of absenteeism when workers have personal issues to address
and when they cannot make it to work.
Another question that was asked to all the six respondents during the research study
was the methods of assessment that were used to assess them. It also sought to establish
the nature of feedback that they received on their evaluation. In this case, the
researchers found out that the workers were given feedback in written form once their
performance had been evaluated. All the six of them agreed that the feedback used was
the same.
The respondents also identified seven methods that the college used to assess them. The
first was punctuality. The college rates the performance of workers based on their
punctuality. Those who absent themselves from work are assumed to be less serious
with their duties and responsibilities. The college promotes employee relations so that
workers can have individuals carry out their duties on their behalf in their absentia. It
also ensures that all employees have received adequate training. That enables them to
have good relations with the managers and fellow workers.
The second way of assessing the employees in the college was by evaluating the quality of work
that they do. The school has a strategy that evaluates the capacity of the teachers to deliver
content to students in a manner that is easy to understand. Workers are also expected to
complete their syllabuses on time. The performance should also be outstanding. As such,
workers in the college are expected to be motivated and to commit maximally to the delivery of
the projects. They are also required to meet the curriculum expectations and set and meet
personal goals. One of the ways that they claimed helped them achieve these goals was working
as a team because of the existence of good employee relations.
Observation of the personal habits of the workers in the college was also used as a way
of assessing the workers. They claimed that the managers evaluated to establish if any
of them had bad habits that could detract them from good performance. As such,
existence of excellent worker relations could help in minimizing such cases because it
would eliminate office gossips, behaviors that are disruptive, breaks that are otherwise
not authorized, and misuse of college property such as using computers for personal
issues. As such, the managers define the rules and regulations that the workers must
follow, failure to which they face disciplinary actions. There is also a behavioral code
that governs the conduct of the workers. Existence of good relations enables them to
reinforce the rules and ensure that they are followed.
Managers in the private college assess the workers by checking their attitude. The
respondents argued that the good relations that they have among themselves help them to
correct each other. As such, developing a positive attitude enables each of them to achieve
the goals that are set for them by the college. It has also promoted respect among the workers,
as well as respect for the managers. That has created a healthy working environment for both
the top management and the workers at various levels in the college.
Another method of assessment that emerged from the interview was that the personal
presentation of the workers was reviewed by the administration. For instance, it was
established that the college had a dress code that was appropriate to the culture of the college.
It was applicable to both the workers and the leaners. Workers had embraced the culture and
used it as a unifying factor that determined their image. As such, they would correct each
other whenever necessary and ensure that each worker had dressed as per the dress code.
It is also common that the quality of the performance of the workers has an effect on the
learners. As such, the administration would carry out surveys on the performance of the
workers by issuing evaluation forms to the learners. In response, the learners would rate the
performance of each of the workers on a scale of ten. Workers whose feedback was positive
were perceived to be meeting the expectation of the college. The interviewees argued that
their high overall performance was due to the fact that they worked together as a unit and
would cooperate and assist each other.
Random checks were also carried out by the administration to assess the performance of the
workers. Sometimes, members of the administration would go round the classes assessing the
performance of the workers. They would also check the timetable to ensure that no worker
was idling during unauthorized breaks. The interviewees explained to the team of researchers
that workers take it upon themselves to remind and alert each other of unattended duties and
responsibilities. It has also led to consistency in the academic performance of the private
college, making it one of the best in the neighborhood.
The other interview question that the six interviewees were required to answer was on the
nature of tools and resources that they used in doing their work. This was a private college, as
such; most of the tools and resources that the tutors used were used and standardized. In this
case, the responses that were obtained were similar.
The resources that were available at the college were used for particular purposes such as
instructor skills, classroom management, and student management, among other applications.
The respondents claimed that they had four primary resources that they used in the
achievement of the goals and objectives of the college.
One of the resources available was classroom management. This was achieved in the college
through the use of a number of tools. Examples of such tools include the handbook of the
advisory committee, ways of enhancing technical teaching, books on overcoming resistance
to change and learning, and a sample of the entire syllabus, among other resources. They also
claimed that such resources could be accessed from the Internet. Books available in the
college library also provided similar resources.
Another critical tool that was used by the workers was lesson planning. Lesson planning is
critical because it outlines the content that the learners must cover and the duration in which
that has to be done. It also enables tutors to plan the best time of examining the learners to
assess their level of understanding of the content. As such, it unites workers because it is
uniform in cases where the content to be covered is similar.
Miscellaneous information was also critical as a resource. Such information involves the
particular events taking place in the college and the stipulated dates. They act as a guide to
the workers because they contain the schedule that has to be followed. The interviewees
stated that these resources are offered by the college. However, it is the collective duty of the
workers to ensure that everything is in its proper situation and that the schedule is followed.
The interviews were also required to explain the means that the college used to keep them
informed of what was happening within the college. They cited several methods of
communication that are used in the college.
The most common that the respondents identified is face-to-face communication. They
identified it as one of the methods of communication that are valued in the college. Five out
of the six respondents claimed that they found it easier and more effective and efficient to use
face-to-face communication with the administration as well as their work mates. The
researcher wished to establish the reason as to why the workers and administration preferred
face-to-face communication. Four out of the six of them claimed that the mode of
communication enhanced an effect that they referred to as a techno-chatter that is
experienced by most people in their daily lives.
The interviewees also added that the college administration would use emails to update them
on the issues that surrounded them. Each of the workers had individual email accounts that
they could use to receive information from the college. They also added that it was also used
by people who were seated close to each other. The use of emails has revolutionized
communication and made it enjoyable and interesting. It is also flexible, affordable, and has a
high level of convenience even when used to communicate to a high number of workers.
From the interviews, it was also clear that meetings were used in conveying message and
information to the workers. The respondents claimed that despite the fact that there were
loads of jokes in such, meetings, they were used to discuss critical ideas and matters that
affected the college. The meetings held in the college were always successful because the
agenda to be discussed was always set prior to the meeting and copies emailed to the
respective individuals. The college management could also use the meetings as the right
platform to ensure that the workers are updated on matters pertaining to their job and
The final method of communication identified was the use of social media. The college used
to communicate to the workers through social media despite the fact that it is considered a
public mode of communication. The administration of the college would also ensure that
anything that is new in terms of resources could be distorted.
The researcher also asked the interviewees to describe their feeling towards the environment
in which they had been working. Four out of the six respondents claimed that they were
satisfied with the nature of the environment in which they were living. They claimed that they
had established cordial relations with work mates. That enabled them to have enjoyable
moments with their colleagues because they had a close relationship. The work relations
prevailing were one of the factors that motivated workers to improve the quality of the
performance and the productivity.
They were also required to describe the skills that they gained from your team. One of
the critical skills was communication and leadership skills. Existence of various groups
in the organization required individuals ready to demonstrate. Individuals who were in
charge of the groups acquired leadership skills as they continued serving.
The final question that was covered in interviews was to make suggestions on the
organization so as to improve it. Such recommendations are provided in this report. If
well-implemented, these recommendations can lead to the improvement of the
performance of the organization.
*Findings 1000 words
The results of the study were subjected to quantitative data analysis and evaluation using
SPSS. The study report also used detailed measurements such as standard deviations.
Additionally, inferential measurements were used particularly relationships to decide the
connections between the variables in the study such as work relations and performance.
Finally, various evaluation tests were also employed in assessing directing effects of
members' age, educational level, and the amount of work on the impact of work relations on
job satisfaction, motivation, and turnover rates in the private college.
The survey meeting was held with six staff members of from the college. These spoke
about the business and work relations in the college. These are individuals who were picked
in a random manner. The average age of the interviewees ranged from 28 years to 44years of
age. It was shocking that they revealed their ages, something that is rare in this modern
world. It was also discovered that a large portion of the employees had an average of four
years of work experience individually.
Analysis of the Employee’s Interview
One of the themes addressed was the level of relations among the workers. Every one of the
interviewees expressed that they were not satisfied with how they related with the others.
According to them, the dissatisfaction was as a result of lack of proper communication
between the workers and the management. They also argued that they lacked the motivation
to improve their efficiency and performance. The workers also found their work lacking
fascination and motivation.
However, a percentage of the workers claimed that relations at the workplace them
euphoria, motivation, and satisfaction. "I am entirely satisfied with my job because my
managers are indeed pleasant to me. There is a warm relationship between us. They are
concerned with my satisfaction and working environment. According to me, that is good
enough to offer me comfort and make me stay in this hotel for long." That was a response
given by one of the interviewees.
The interview also addressed the elements that influenced the worker's level of
relations and the resulting impact on their satisfaction. According to some of them, it was
clear that several variables affected their relations with other workers, but one thing emerged;
the money related component. A large number of the interviewees expressed that monetary
awards were the primary persuading element that enhanced relations at their job. Different
components such as medical services cover were also regarded critical to their level of
relations. That is because most of them had medical covers from the same insurance
companies. Others also had similar disease conditions and were under the same management
and treatment programs. That was a unifying factor for them. As for money, they would
sometimes unite to complain for wage increments. That also improved their relations.
Another variable that influenced the level interactions and relations of the employees
was an acknowledgment by the administration of the hotel. On top of these themes, five
particular components also appeared to influence the workers’ relations, as indicated by the
responses received. These elements include respect, healthy working conditions, and
acknowledgement and recognition of achievement. Other contributing factors included the
challenging nature of the education services required, as well as the presence of job security
and retirement and pension benefits for the employees. Whenever they lacked any of these
components, the employees argued that they would team up and question the administration.
That created collaboration and enhanced their relations.
Another issue in the study was about disappointment and nature of challenges of the
job as faced and narrated by the employees in the occupation. That was intended to find out
from the managers and workers what variable caused disappointment on their employment.
Some of the elements specified were the lack of leave reward, minimal overtime wages, little
health allowances, sustenance appropriation and transport allowances. They also associated
these factors with lack of adequate relations between the workers.
One of the interviewees argued that the introduction of benefits to a worker is a
motivating element to proficiency, productivity or expanded efficiency in any workplace. He
also argued that stability of the organisation can cause imperative disappointment to him as a
worker. Meanwhile, another interviewee explained that failure and low productivity can
happen as a consequence of his assessment on a labourer in the college not being considered.
As such, their performance and efficiency had taken a dip and started dwindling due to lack
of proper relations between the workers and the managers. It was caused by the fact that they
felt that their issues were not addressed. Lack of wage increment led to break down in the
relations in the college, leading to low motivation level, hence low productivity in the
The researcher also tackled another topic, a fourth one, on what the college could do
to build workers' level relations. A large number of the workers in the hotel concurred that
the administration needed to give transportation recompense or to give a staff transport. That
would reduce the daily hustles of commuting to and fro the workplace. They also argued that
increment of their wages would boost their motivation and working morale significantly. It
would also promote the relations between the management and workers, as well as unite the
workers. One of the interviews clarified that the manager ought to increase their pay and cater
for their transport and address their social affairs.
The fifth issue in the interview was on motivation. The greater part of the workers
concurred that the workers in the college had between low and average motivation and
morale. The little motivation possible was provided by the presence of some motivating force
programs offered by the administration of the college. These motivators programs included:
occasional preparing of dinner for the staff, occasions of social events, and acknowledgment
by the business.
Analysis of the employers’ interview
The first theme conducted by the employers and the management was how relations among
the workers was pursued and achieved in the company. The first two interviews recognized
employee relations as the primary component of job satisfaction. One of the managers also
acknowledged that provision of a healthy working environment the labourers and an open
entryway strategy by the administration were critical to the motivation of the workers, as well
the promotion of employee relations. They also identified that employee relations was a
determining factor in the productivity and efficiency of the college. The manager singled out
monetary rewards, job promotions, and increment of wages as ways of boosting the relations
and the motivation of the workers.
The second issue addressed during the interview was failure and disappointment.
Most of the interviews had similar opinions as to what might lead to workers failing to
deliver high quality services. They argued that when a worker is neglected by the business
when they are paid low wages, and when the organization does not work an open entryway
strategy, then a large portion of them would be significantly frustrated. They also argued that
lack of adequate motivation would lead to low morale and affect the performance and
efficiency of the workers adversely.
Another issue that was addressed was concerned with job satisfaction and proficiency
among the employees and its relationship with employee relations. The question was to find
out if there was any relationship between job satisfaction and their productivity and
performance, and employee relations. The respondents claimed that whenever an employee is
satisfied with their job, there is an increase in profitability and their level of proficiency and
performance also increases drastically. They claimed that employee relations play a critical
role in satisfaction and efficiency. A decent working condition and excellent pay were critical
to any business to succeed and sustain quality services and performance.
The researcher also evaluated a fourth issue that was concerned with the nature of
services that the workers benefit from the college. Interviewees revealed that the organisation
rarely gave them any alluring pay rates as a mode of recognition and appreciation,
advancement and health services cover. These factors showed that there is a need for the
management to establish ways of rewarding and recognising the efforts of the workers. As
such, their relationship with management was poor, affecting their productivity.
It was also worth noting that the productivity and performance of the college was
poor. Most of the workers attributed the trend to the low wages paid by the company, and
primarily due to lack of advanced work relations among the workers. They argued that it did
not motivate them to offer high quality services. They also argued that there were few uniting
factors that could promote relations between them. As such, there were several customer
complaints on poor quality by the time this study was carried out.
5.1 Summary
This project focused on how employee relations affect productivity of an organization. The
case study of a private college was used to complete the research study. The study was designed
in the form of a cross-sectional survey. It is descriptive and employed both quantitative and qualitative
methods of data collection and analysis. Qualitative techniques were employed in collecting data based on
observations, opinions, knowledge of the sample population, and the views and perceptions that the
respondents had on how motivation affects the productivity of an organization. Quantitative techniques were
utilized in the designing of the questionnaires to collect data so as to meet the objectives of the study.
The sampling technique that was employed for the research was convenience
sampling. It was used because of its ability to provide a gross estimate of the result. The
research made use of both primary sources of data. Primary data was collected using
interviews during the study survey. They were used to provide data that was complete,
accurate, and reliable. Methods of data collection that were used include interviews of
employees, managers, and support staff at the private college.
Interviews were designed and administered to employees and managers of the private
college. The researchers interviewed some of the employees and the management to establish
the relations that existed among the workers and how it had affected the productivity of the
It was established that work relations increase the productivity of employees and
enables them to have high, high-quality performance. It was also found out that most of the
respondents would be more productive if more methods of enhancing relations at the work
place were adopted and exercise in the college.
5.2 Recommendations
The findings show that the productivity of an organization depends on employee relations.
These recommendations are thus done to relate the findings to real-life situations in
businesses. They aim at helping the managers identify ways and reasons improving worker
relations if they are to expect any increase in productivity levels.
1. The grievances of employees should be addressed by the management to create an
enabling working environment and improve relations between the employees and the
2. The management should maintain effective communication on systems of
performance appraisal to enable employees recognize why they should give their best
in productivity.
3. Workers should learn to listen to their colleagues and respect them. They should also
develop the culture of helping them when in need.
4. Organizations should organize get-together parties that involve both the workers and
the managers to foster their relations.
5. Workers should exercise personal integrity to enable them to win the trust and
admiration of their colleagues. That would improve their relations at the work place.
5.3 Limitations
There were several limitations faced during the study. They include the following.
1. Inadequate finances.
2. Sometimes the respondents gave inadequate information.
3. Some of the respondents refused to respond to the questionnaires.
4. Limited sample size.
5. The time allocated for the survey and the entire research study was not enough.
6. Uneven distribution of questionnaires as some departments did not get any of such.
5.4 Conclusion
The primary objective of the research study was to study how employee relations affect
performance in an organization. It also aimed at making a recommendation of ways that can
be used to improve productivity in a business by improving the relations among the workers.
Some of the conclusions that could be drawn based on the findings of the case study of the
private college include the following.
1. Most of the workers had cordial relations among themselves, satisfied and motivated
because of the presence of a healthy working environment. Consequently,
productivity was high.
2. The level of employee relations in the organization was a notch lower than what the
employees expected and wanted.
3. There are several incentive schemes that the management has in place for the
employees. The incentives will go a long way in boosting employee relations, and
consequently boost the productivity of the private college.
4. The productivity of organizations increases as the level of employee relations
This study did not exhaust knowledge on how employee relations affect organizational productivity.
However, it acts as a reference and guide to future studies that could be made in the field. It was also a
confirmation that organizations need to improve employee relations if the level of productivity is to improve. It
also creates a framework for future researchers who might develop interest in a similar or related topic.

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