Research proposal on iot in smart parking

Research Proposal 1
By Author’s Name
Tutor Name
Research Proposal 2
IOT in Smart Parking
Executive Summary
In the awakening of the 21
century urban sprawl, increased traffic jam and urban congestion
due to delays in parking that most drivers face when they are unable to identify empty parking
space have attracted the attention of many researchers. The smart parking technology is seen to
shed light on this problem. Although many types smart parking systems have been developed in
the last decade, this problem seems to persist. The proposed study hence aims at analyzing data
capturing nodes used smart parking system procedures that hinder its performance. The proposed
project will aim at analyzing technology using feasibility analysis on the sensors technology
adopted in most smart parking projects. In that, the proposed research will focus on the effective
method used to gather information from the parking space. The main focus of the study will be
on minimizing the congestion of single lens and cameras smart parking system adopted in a
particular area due to the use of the same broadcasting bands sensors and cameras. The study
will propose installation of multiple lenses on the parking with a single parking lot's management
that will reduce failure use as well as faster and easier management of parking in both indoor and
outdoor parking.
Noise- a disruption made by overwhelming sound or light energy that override a certain energy
wavelength in a given band.
The incorporation of smart parking technology in urban transport planning has become
more interesting as it responds to the high demands of government to adopt IT aided on the
transport sector. In that, time and cost are two vital factors of anyone life, and no one needs to be
delayed at any given point. Every day the world population is on increasing, and the urban and
cities are becoming larger to support this population. This has resulted in governments looking
for an elaborate means to solve this issue of congestion in the so-called smart cities. Nothing that
frustrates drivers like looking for a parking space when they drive in the cities. This means that,
lacking a parking space result to most of the drivers driving around in search of parking and
many ends up either parking in the places reserved for those with disabilities or improper
parking. The result of this phenomenon is unpredictable congestion during the rush hours when
the drivers are leaving the cities. Urban land use planning needs parking management system to
enable it manage the urban space sparingly and effectively. Hence gathering information and
directing the drivers on the proper timing and space available for parking has become the
concern for most urban developers (Naphade et al., 2011).
The Internet of Things IoT is a new technology enabling the interaction between data
capturing, interpretation, analysis and usage. IoT enables the use of sensors such as ultrasonic;
active and passive RFID, IR, etc. to capture data and connect to the internet through different
protocols where users can easily access them from the cloud. The easy access of data enable
monitoring and management as well as redirecting the users to their designated areas. Therefore,
IoT is a technology that will definitely enable the dreams of the smart cities came true.
The proposed study aims at analyzing data collection methods used by various IOT
technology adopted in various settings. In addition, the proposed research aims at assessing the
complexity that involves the use of IOT smart parking system including hardware and software
as well as billing procedures involved in each system (Pham et al., 2015).In a nutshell, the
proposed study will look at the integration of three factors that are involved in IOT smart parking
Research Proposal 3
system. First, it will assess the broadcasting wave bands rage and type (sensors technology used),
the compatibility of the IOT application on customers’ gadgets (the protocol used) and finally the
effectiveness of accurate calculation of parking fee mode, of payment and monitoring of the cars
in the parking (security). The researcher developed three hypotheses which state that the IOT the
choice sensors and cameras are slowing down the IOT technology in parking.
State-of-the-art/Literature Reviewing
Internet of things IoT is a system adapted to improve the effective way of identifying free
parking space in a parking. IOT is a new parking platform that enables the users to connect to the
cloud base information that is generated by the sensors nodes. The sensors node may be chosen
by the designer to suit the interest such as optical or sound sensors. The sensors use different
sound or light waves range designed to detect an empty space in a parking. The next step
involves sending the information captured by the sensor in the processing node which process
the data evaluate and send the data to the cloud. The cloud makes the processed data available
for the user to access it through an application which gives the information on the available
parking space (Gupta, Kulkarni, Jathar, Sharma & Jain, 2017).
Although IOT technology basically has almost the same nodes functionality, different developers
of this technology differ on various IOT architecture such the sensors, the protocol and security
which may alter the procedure that each design use. For example, PARKISSEO, the French IoT
startup uses the sensors installed in the parking slot which detect whether there is an empty
parking space transmitting the data to the application via LPWA (Low Power Wide Area)
network technology. The users who would wish to access the parking space enters destination
value in the application installed in their gadget which uses the real-time updated data in the
cloud. The application guides the drivers to the nearest parking slot. Nominet is another example
that uses a map view to locate a parking space available in a given area. The technology adopted
by Nominet was initially designed for flood monitoring. This technology was adopted to
minimize insecurity and easy access to cars in a parking space (TechDesign Blog, 2016). Again
it helps to give the driver an easy way to leave a parking by giving information on various routes
that the drivers opt to use to either leave or park their cars. The third example includes sensors
that now do not use the sound sensors to detect an empty space rather than a light energy (optical
sensors) which detects an empty space through reflections of light waves of the car shadows. An
empty space is detected if there’s no object casting a shadow on a particular parking slot (Joshi,
Yeola, Kanse & Student, B.E., 2017). On the three examples, there is a difference in the sensor
design used. The sound sensors as used in parking which the sound waves are not affected by the
environment as it will be discussed later. One advantage of using sound sensor is that it not
affected by other objects around the parking, unlike the optical sensors which may be affected by
shadows that are casted by other objects in the parking such as walls or trees. Mark you, the
sensors depict the reflected energy in the particular parking space. The sensor may illuminate its
energy on the parking where a different wave reflected dictate whether space is empty or not.
Optical sensors are suitable for indoor parking as it will be discussed later.
Theoretical Content/Methodology
The study will adopt a literature analysis on research done on IOT technology used to enhance
parking procedures. It will emphasize on analyzing the selection of collection of data by the lens
used either sound, light lens or cameras that use. Vision-Based Method. In addition, the proposed
study will compare some of the IOT adopted technology security measures and the protocol
Research Question, Aim/Objectives and Sub-goals
Research Proposal 4
Research question: the mode of sensors lens and cameras used to capture data on parking space
affects the accuracy of prediction of an empty space in IOT smart parking technology.
Aim: The proposed research aims at scrutinizing possible solution that can be adopted to
minimize data capturing noise both unexpected shadows and sound wavers that might interact
with the sound sensors frequency.
Research objectives:
The research objective is to acquire find out how smart parking systems can be installed
with a series of multiple sensors that can minimize both sound and light energy noise.
The research will also aim at giving a cost and energy effective strategy of reducing data
storming in the control node.
The proposed research sub-goals will involve optimizing the sensors network
Lifetime maximization coverage of data.
Theoretical Content/Methodology
The study will adopt analysis of a variety of data capturing sensors and cameras and issues that
each (sound and light sensors and camera) face while applied at different parking environment.
One hypothesis to be tested in that single sensor or camera used in a given parking may be
affected by noises which result to uncertain data interpretation. Again, the proposed study aim at
giving a sensor location effectiveness and the arrangement of lens. Bagula, Castelli & Zennaro,
(2015) outline the idea of distribution of more than one less in the parking which assure that a
parking slot is completely empty before giving a signal that there is an empty space. It has been
known that some careless drivers park their car improperly making it difficult for the sensors and
cameras to fully make a complete answer that there is an open space or not. The proposed study
aims at coming up with the solution of fully identifying an empty space and giving alarms to
those improperly parked cars.
Experimental Setting (Hardware or Software or Both)
The proposed study aims at caring out a research on a number of noises that affect sensors and
cameras as well as their location in relation to capturing the data. The proposed study will
examine three types of data capturing method which include sound sensor (supersonic sounds)
light sensors and cameras. The proposed research will major on two areas, picture pixels used in
relation to the picture quality as well as sound and light energy used by sensors (at what band do
the energy is broadcasted)
Research Proposal 5
Reference list
Joshi, S., Yeola, A., Kanse, Y. and Student, B.E., 2017. Automated Parking System using IOT.
International Journal of Engineering Science, 12309.
Tech Design Blog., 2016. 3 Examples of How IoT is Applied in Smart Parking. [online]
Available at:
Gupta, A., Kulkarni, S., Jathar, V., Sharma, V. and Jain, N., 2017. Smart Car Parking
Management System Using IoT. American Journal of Science, Engineering and
Technology, 2(4), p.112.
Pham, T.N., Tsai, M.F., Nguyen, D.B., Dow, C.R. and Deng, D.J., 2015. A cloud-based smart-
parking system based on Internet-of-Things technologies. IEEE Access, 3, pp.1581-1591.
Kianpisheh, A., Mustaffa, N., Limtrairut, P. and Keikhosrokiani, P., 2012. Smart parking system
(SPS) architecture using ultrasonic detector. International Journal of Software
Engineering and Its Applications, 6(3), pp.55-58.
Bagula, A., Castelli, L. and Zennaro, M., 2015. On the design of smart parking networks in the
smart cities: An optimal sensor placement model. Sensors, 15(7), pp.15443-15467.
Naphade, G. Banavar, C. Harrison, J. Paraszczak, and R. Morris, 2011 “Smarter cities and their
innovation challenges” in Computer, vol. 44, no. 6, , pp. 32–39.

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