documented policies and rules. Commitment-based control involves cultivation of employee
motivation towards aligning their interests to the betterment of the organization.
Controlling the organization is done by the people at the top of the hierarchy. This is
because it covers all the activities that are carried out in the organization. Controlling links all the
various departments in the organization and come up with the course of action for an
organization. The functions it undertakes include; provision of data related to the activities
carried out, psychological empowerment and ensuring continuous improvement among other
The management control strategy depends on the employees’ acceptance or resistance,
market forces and state regulation. The control strategies are implemented through unions,
individual employees, a third party or through technology.
The next role is leading which refers to the process of influencing the employee
performance through actions such as motivation, staffing, salary handling, and promotions. This
role is manifested to the human resource managers and they ensure that, the employee welfare is
well taken care of. In some organizations, the employees are involved in the process of coming
up with suggestions on how they expect to be handled (Dubrin, 2012).
Most management systems are keen on ensuring high productivity among the workers.
Productivity refers to output per unit input. The introduction of productivity while managing
employees raised a lot of controversy in the working environment. Employees claimed that they
were being overworked and hence needed the work to be specific and done at a specific time.
This led to the introduction of the unions who pushed for specified working hours and amount.
Roles of the workers’ unions
Unions have been in existence for a long period now. In Australia specifically, Unions
came up as the nation became more industrialized and division of labor started to take shape
Their role was to come up with a collective bargaining power for the employees’ benefits,
salaries and wages, work rules and power. They grew rapidly from 1930s-1950s and declined
from the 1960s to the present. The influence of unions has waxed and waned over time and in the
process impacting mainly on the way of life of employees all over the world (Donhoff, 2016).
According to statistics, union formation has declined gradually since 1962 in Australia. Unions
in Australia are taking a turn from blue collar male unionists’ domination and cutting across all
the career sectors and gender. (Colebatch, 2013There are different types of unions including
industrial, white collar, general and craft unions.
The trade union working theories include the pluralist theory whereby, the unions act as
the representatives of the workers and air their views. Another theory is the social-psychological
theory whereby the unions ensure the employees’ welfare is catered for. Unions also act as
vehicles for revolutionary changes in the industry.
Unions have five principle functions. These include; service, representation, regulation,
government and public administration services (Ewing, 2005). The major role of the unions is