State of Art Regarding the Quantification of Earth Quakes

State of Art Regarding the Quantification of Earth Quakes
Department, Institution, Address
Abstract. The objective placed upon this study is the assessment of the common approaches proposed in the
estimation of losses due to earthquakes. The purpose of the research is to seek through survey the methods
used in quantifying the negative effects due to earthquakes. By estimating the costs and losses incurred from
earthquakes that are yet to be predetermined, the option is to pursue the desirable approaches to make it
possible for subsistence of people. The other issue is that the approaches endeavour to attain relates to the
state of art regarding the quantification of consequences of earthquakes, the aspects associated with the
response a building gives due to shaking because of an earthquake.
Seismic activities in some regions of the world
necessitate the development of designs for structures that
observe specific seismic codes. The codes are based on
the laws and experiences of the country in question. The
fundamental precepts proposed for seismic designs have
been rapidly developed in recent time with many of
these approaches being in conflict with each other. In
some cases, the approaches can be largely fundamental
while in others it is a matter of conceptual analysis. The
general understanding of the mood of research to
develop earthquake resistant codes is that the current
state-of-the-art knowledge requires that approaches be
fine-tuned and complex to meet the demands on this age.
Various concepts have to be put together in this
endeavor. One such concept is ground motion-induced
uncertainty when dealing with structural response. It is
an important part of performance-centered earthquake
research and engineering. The current practice demands
that ground motion uncertainty be represented
empirically in the analysis revolving around earthquake
engineering. What is needed for this empirical approach
is to design closed-form calculations that provide the
quantitative parameters for establishing statistical
Statement of Objectives
The study’s objective is to conduct an assessment
regarding the approaches used in estimating losses from
earthquake activities.
The Dynamic Behavior of Soils and Foundation
Designing of Structures
Foundation designing of building depends on the
behavior of soils when subjected to static and dynamic
conditions of loading. The aspects of foundation
response need to be understood in light of the static-
behavior-reference-frame established through
affirmation of laboratory tests [1]. The laboratory
programs have been designed to also include static
testing which is an essential element in understanding
soil behavior. The information required is about plastic
deformability of parts, strength of parts, damping and the
stiffness experienced with the soil materials [2].
Damping and stiffness information is needed to
understand the way soil deposits respond.
Building Code Systems
The current building coding system has been developed
to suit a situation where the serviceability requirements
of buildings are met. The other factors such as safety in
life, prevention of collapse during the earthquake period
has been addressed [3]. The damage to the house is
acceptable in instances where the collapse has been
prevented [2]. When developing seismic design
provisions, the part that raises controversy the most is
the development of strength modification and the factors
of displacement modification. In the first instance, the
factors for modifying the strength of the structure are
meant to deal with damping, the capacity of energy that
has dissipated and the over-strength of the structure. The
level of reduction that has been spelt out in the seismic
codes is based on the observations obtained from
performance of the systems within then structure [4].
The different codes used in buildings have different
ranges of values with the appropriate amount of force
used in the reduction. The absolute value of a structure’s
strength is not as important.
In displacement amplification, the basic assumption used
is based on equal displacement approximation.
According to this assumption, the displacement that
occurs in the inelastic systems is equal to that of
equivalent systems which have the same magnitude of
elastic stiffness while the amount of strength is
unlimited. Such approximations are non-conservative in
their use with short-period structures.
Empirical approach in Earthquake Loss Estimation
The original loss estimation was based on empirical
studies that focused on the macroseismic intensities with
the aim of characterizing the shaking due to earthquakes.
Recent years have been characterized by the unveiling of
instrumental data under strongmotion earthquake
recordings. The empirical studies that were conducted
involved parameters like the peak ground acceleration.
The use of the peak ground acceleration produces poor
results in the estimation of losses because of lack of a
correlation to losses experienced in the structures as a
result of damage from the earthquake. The best measure
of losses in empirical studies is based on the intensities
linked to ground motion. In cases where the seismic
hazard is defined based on intensity, the form in which
building vulnerability is represented in for most cases is
the Damage Probability Matrix. This form is used to
indicate the discrete probabilities experienced with
certain classes of structures with respect to vulnerability
and proneness to suffer damage of a particular grade [5].
The indication is for a certain intensity. The available
scales are the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, the
Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik scale, the European
Macroseismic Scale and the Parameterless Scale of
Seismic Intensity [6]. The damage probability matrix
scales are provided to reflect levels such as lower and
upper bound estimations. Intensity scales employ
qualitative terminologies like few, many and most in
estimating the number of buildings within a particular
class that have suffered a damage grade [7]. The
qualitative nature of the terms makes them become
subjective which means that they are hard to translate
into a numerical value. Their definition spans across
three ranges of percentages. When the damage
probabilities and inventory data are combined, it
becomes possible to estimate upper and lower-bound
values of the damage expected. The damage grades have
connections to the objective ratios. The ratios are
obtained from the cost incurred in repair to the cost
incurred in replacement.
The Analytic Approach
The analytic method taken to assess the damage as a
result of earthquakes is done purely from theory. Its
approach has no observational basis on which to rely
with evidence [2]. It is a theoretical simulation such as
prediction of the damage on the structure because of
earthquake loading. The vulnerability of a building is
expressed using the capacity graph which is used to
represent how a structure behavior in a non-linear
manner when there is lateral displacement [3]. One
needs a non-linear structural analysis procedure like
pseudo-static analysis otherwise known as pushover in
identifying the capacity curve. The capacity curve is a
relationship obtained indicating the variation between
the shear force at the base and the lateral movement of
the structure’s control node. The postulation is for a
reliable model for a structure of a building being
considered where the pushover analysis is applicable.
The reliable structural model can be established using
finite elements.
The other component to consider is the seismic ground
motion represented using the response spectrum under
various physical parameters such as acceleration and
displacement. The ability to correlate the response
spectrum and the capacity of a building, it is necessary to
convert the parameters from their Sa-T or conventional
domain into a domain understood through the capacity
curve like the spectral acceleration spectral
displacement (Sa-Sd)
When contrasted with empirical studies which represent
ground motion using one parameter like the shaking
intensity, a response spectrum makes it possible to
consider the spectral content due to ground movements
[7]. The earthquake demand can be mimicked based on
the procedure selected for correlating seismic demand
with the capacity of a building or based on the response
spectra used in its random shape. Predicting the damage
a structure experiences or produces using analytical
methods while considering the capacity of a building
under a seismic experience requires various approaches.
The methods in question are the Capacity Spectrum
method, Collapse-Based Methods, Displacement-Based
Methods, and Displacement Coefficient Methods and the
Incremental Dynamic Analysis.
The attention received by CSM and DCM is of a great
kind because of the publishing of some provisions made
by FEMA. The other is CSM because such a procedure
gave a reason to have the HAZUS method. The
procedures that have been obtained from the philosophy
that advocates for Performance-Based Seismic Design
while understanding that damages on a structure is
determined using the lateral displacement method.
M. P. Promo, M. J. Mendoza and S. R.
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