The United State Constitutional Amendment

Probable Cause for search
Student’s name
In the United States there are various enactment that aim at improving the policies of the
country. Among such enactment is the fourth amendment which protects the citizens from illegal
searchers and seizers by the law enforcers (Woody, 2006). The constitution stipulates that the
enactment should not be violated and a search or seizer can only be conducted upon production
of a search warrant or a probable cause to conduct the search. Besides, this probable cause must
be supported by the required oath or affirmation which describes the needs for the search and the
place to be searched. The basic reason for the provision of this amendment was to protect the
citizens’ right to privacy.
From the case of Jomo Pemberton and Officer Reynolds, the driver had violated the
traffic laws in the state of Florida under chapter 316 .192 and was therefore liable for punishment
as stipulated by the statutes for reckless driving. According to Florida Statute section 316.192,
any person who drives his or her vehicle in willful disregard to his or her safety or the risks the
lives of others is guilty of reckless driving and liable for punishment either by fine, imprisonment
or both (Florida, Florida, & American Legal Publishing Company, 1990). While the fourth
amendment prohibits the officers from search and seizers, the constitution provides some unique
exemption to conduct the search. Among the few exemption of fourth amendment to conduct a
search or seizer is in a probable cause. During a probable cause, the officer must prove that there
was need to conduct to conduct the search either due to rising concerns or to prevent the offender
from escaping. In the case of Officer Reynolds, he was covered by the law when he conducted
the traffic stop.
Despite the fact that the citizens are protected by the fourth amendment for illegal
searches, sometimes there are few exemptions including circumstances calling for warrantless
search and cases where there is probable cause to search as the case of Officer Reynolds. As
stipulated by the Florida statute, a person is liable for punishment for reckless driving. Reckless
driving may be in different forms including drifting which may be a threat to the public. On the
other hand, the driver was covered by the fourth amendment from the search but due to the fact
that he had already violated the Florida Statute on reckless driving, the officer therefore had the
right to conduct the traffic stop.
For the last few years there have been series of court ruling concerning reckless driving
in the United States and other countries. However, most of these cases ruling are different from
each other depending on various factors including evidence of reckless driving. Some of those
cases have been dismissed while other have been jailed for violating the crime. Besides, it is
important to note that these court ruling may vary depending on laws of each state. Among the
most recent cases of reckless driving includes:
ConRail., United States., & United States. (1978). In the Supreme Court of the United
States: October term, 1978 : Consolidated Rail Corporation, petitioner, v. People of the State of
Illinois, et al., respondents : petition for a writ of certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals
for the Seventh Circuit. Philadelphia: International Print. Co.
In the case above of PENNSYLVANIA v. Mimms which was decided on 5
1977, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania dismissed the case as they found out that the traffic
officers had violated the fourth amendment against search and seizer (ConRail., United States.,
& United States, 1978). The court found out that the respondent revolver which is a deadly
weapon had been transported without license but the respondents rights had been violated during
the seizer of the weapon. However, the court stipulated that the facts were not to be disputed but
the fourth amendment had been violated by the traffic officers. The case is similar to how Officer
Reynolds conducted the traffic stop and conducted the search without a warrant.
Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806
In the case of Whren V. the United States, the district court found out that the officer had
cause to conduct a traffic stop and believe that the petitioner had violated the traffic code. In the
above case, the traffic officer conducted a traffic stop due to violation of the law that led to
search and the court determined that the officer had probable cause to conduct the search (United
States, 1996). The case above is the same as that of Mr. Pemberton and Officer Reynolds
because the officer conducted the traffic stop due to violation of traffic laws which led to search
and arrest of the driver.
Lorenzo Prado NAVERETTEE and Jose Prado Naverette V. CALIFORNIA
In the above case the California highway patrol stopped a vehicle that matched the
description of another vehicle that had been reported of having run off the road. Upon stopping
the vehicle the traffic officer smelled marijuana and therefore conducted a search (United States,
2014). During the case hearing, the court found out that the officer had not violated the fourth
amendment by conducting the traffic stop and search. The court concluded that the officer had
reasonable suspicion to conduct the investigative stop. The case is similar to that of Mr.
Pemberton because the stop search was conducted after violating the law and therefore the
officer had the probable cause to conduct the traffic stop.
Indeed, there are various way by which a driver can commit a traffic offence including
reckless driving activities such as drifting among others. Based on the three cases above, the
officer Reynolds had reasonable suspicious to conduct the traffic stop. As a matter of fact, Mr.
Pemberton had committed violated the Florida statute by driving recklessly and was therefore
liable for search. For that reason, the officer had probable cause to conduct the traffic stop.
Woody, R. H. (2006). Search and seizure: The Fourth Amendment for law enforcement officers.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Florida, Florida, & American Legal Publishing Company. (1990). Florida statutes ... laws of
Florida & indexes. Tallahassee, Fla: American Legal Pub. Co.
ConRail., United States., & United States. (1978). In the Supreme Court of the United States:
October term, 1978 : Consolidated Rail Corporation, petitioner, v. People of the State of
Illinois, et al., respondents : petition for a writ of certiorari to the United States Court of
Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. Philadelphia: International Print. Co.
United States. (1996). Whren et al. v. United States: Certiorari to the United States Court of
Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. United States: publisher not identified.
United States. (2014). Prado et al v California: United States court of appeal. United States

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