WHAT IS HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN? 3
process, and last not least, the involvement of users during the design and development of a
product or service (Norman 2013).
The human-centred design proposes seven stages of human action that help designers to
bridge the gulf of execution and that of evaluation. The stages of implementation include plan,
specification, and performing. On the other hand, stages of evaluation include perceiving the
state of the world, interpretation, and comparison of the outcome (Norman 2013). Most behavior,
therefore, will require some of the stages but others remain unnecessary (Norman 2013).
However, it is worth noting that a sequence of activities is evident in which multiple loops of
feedback are used to direct further activities (Norman 2013).
The human action has three levels including visceral, behavioral, and reflective. The
physicalactivities involve people making quick and subconscious responses without awareness or
control (Shin, 2014). These reactions are only sensitive to the prevailing circumstances of the
situation. Immediate perception of designers describesemotional responses. The developers find
their products appealing concerning appearance, smell, sound or touch with no regard tothe
usability, understanding, and effectiveness of the product (Norman 2013). The behavioral level
has two fundamental characteristics, which include actions and analyses of products, services or
systems. This level is critical as it aligns activities of designers with the goals of designing.
Therefore, weighing of actions against expectations is essential(Shin, 2014). Positive
expectations come with positive outcomes (Norman 2013).
Last but not least, the reflective level entails cognition of designers. There is
unfathomable understanding, reasoning, and conscious decision-making taking place at the
reflective level (Norman 2013). A lot of analysis takes place at this level since it is slow, in-
depth, and cognitive. The designer takes a close look at the product, service, or system evaluates